Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Wind Mountain, Washington"
Includes ... Wind Mountain ... Collins Point ... Submerged Forest ... The Golden Age of Postcards ...
Image, 2003, Wind Mountain, Washington, from Wind River, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind Mountain, Washington. Wind Mountain, Washington, as seen from the mouth of the Wind River. Image taken October 25, 2003.


Wind Mountain ...
The 1,903-foot-high Wind Mountain is located on the Washington shore of the Columbia River, at River Mile (RM) 156.5. Immediately downstream lies the mouth of the Wind River and the Washington community of Home Valley. Six miles downstream is Stevenson, Washington. Both communities provide good views of Wind Mountain. Upstream of Wind Mountain is the Collins Point Landslide. Across from Wind Mountain on the Oregon side of the Columbia lies Shellrock Mountain.

Wind Mountain Geology ...
"Wind Mountain is one of several microdioritic intrusions in this area (e.g., Government Cove and Shellrock Mountain across the river in Oregon). Fragments of Columbia River basalt (xenoliths) have been found in almost all of these intrusives, inidicating that they are younger than the Columbia River basalt (specifically, Grande Ronde Basalt). Most geologists who have studied these intrusions believe that magma from them reached the surface and formed volcanic edifices that were subsequently removed by erosion. Also consider that we now know that the long-lived Bridal Veil channel (from approximately 14 to 2 m.y. ago) of the ancestral Columbia River lay only a mile or less south of these intrusions. Were these intrusions emplaced after the establishment of the Bridal Veil channel, and did volcanoes erupt close by? If this did take place, how did it affect the ancestral Columbia River? To date, we have not been able to find volcanic debris within the Troutdale Formation that we can conclusively say originated from volcanic vents associated with these intrusives. ... Another possibility is that these intrusions were emplaced prior to the time of establishment of the Bridal Veil channel, a period of approximately 15.5 to 14 m.y. ago. The age of these intruisons is a key question, and readiometric age determinations are needed to help unravel this problem.

Source:   Tolan, T.L., Beeson, M.H., and Vogt, B.F., 1984, Exploring the Neogene History of the Columbia River: Discussion and Geologic Field Trip Guide to the Columbia River Gorge, Oregon Geology,vol.46, no.9, September 1984, Published by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries.

Image, 2003, Wind River towards Wind Mountain, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind Mountain from across Wind River. Image taken October 25, 2003.
Image, 2005, Wind Mountain, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind Mountain, Washington, as seen from Interstate 84, Oregon. Image taken September 18, 2005.


Wind Mountain and the "Submerged Forest" ...
In the Columbia at the base of Wind Mountain use to be the "Submerged Forest", now covered by the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir. Lewis and Clark passed by Wind Mountain on October 30, 1805, and wrote:

"... Stumps of pine trees are in maney places are at Some distance in the river ...". [Clark, October 30, 1805]

This "Submerged Forest" disappeared in 1938 under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir, the pool behind the Bonneville Dam.

[More]


Penny Postcard, ca.1920, Submerged Forest near Wind Mountain, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Submerged Forest in the Wind Mountain, Washington, ca.1920s. Penny Postcard, ca.1920s, "Wind Mountain and Submerged Forest, Columbia River". Card #321, Chas. S. Lipschuetz Company, Portland, Oregon. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Image, 2004, Wind Mountain and Collins Point, Washington, from Starvation Creek, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind Mountain and Collins Point, Washington. View from from Starvation Creek State Park, Oregon. Image taken September 24, 2004.


Wind Mountain in 1940 ...
From the Oregon State Archives "A 1940 Journey Across Oregon":

"... SHELL ROCK MOUNTAIN, 136.9 m. (2,068 alt.), is opposite WIND MOUNTAIN, which is in Washington. The Indians believed that the Great Spirit set the whirlwinds blowing in constant fury about Wind Mountain as a punishment to those who, breaking the taboo, had taught the white men how to snare salmon. ..."


Views ...

Image, 2003, Shellrock Mountain, Oregon, and Wind Mountain, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Shellrock Mountain, Oregon (left), and Wind Mountain, Washington (right). Image taken July 5, 2003.
Image, 2006, Wind Mountain, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind Mountain, Washington, as seen from Interstate 84, Oregon. Image taken October 2, 2006.
Image, 2005, Wind Mountain from Home Valley, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wind Mountain, Washington, as seen from Home Valley. Image taken August 27, 2005.
Image, 2005, Outcrop, Wind Mountain, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Outcrop, Wind Mountain, Washington. View from just west of the Collins Point Landslide. Image taken February 26, 2005.
Image, 2005, Outcrop, Wind Mountain, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Outcrop, Wind Mountain, Washington. View from just west of the Collins Point Landslide. Image taken February 26, 2005.


"The Golden Age of Postcards ...

The early 1900s was the "Golden Age of Postcards". The "Penny Postcard" became a popular way to send greetings to friends and family. Today the Penny Postcard has become a snapshot of history.

Penny Postcard, Wind Mountain as seen from Steamer, ca.1908 Penny Postcard: Wind Mountain and Collins Landing, Washington, as seen from Steamer, ca.1908. Penny Postcard, Copyrighted 1908, "Wind Mountain, Columbia River". Collins Landing is visible on the shoreline. Published by Benj. A. Gifford, The Dalles, Oregon, Copyright 1908. Card #325. Made in Germany. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, Wind Mountain from downstream, ca.1910 Penny Postcard: Wind Mountain and Columbia River, as seen from downstream, ca.1910s. Penny Postcard, ca.1910s, "Wind Mountain, Columbia River." Published by the Columbia Card Co., Portland, Oregon. Made in Germany. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, ca.1920s, Submerged Forest near Wind Mountain, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Submerged Forest in the Wind Mountain, Washington, ca.1920s. Penny Postcard, ca.1920s, "Wind Mountain and Submerged Forest, Columbia River". Card #321, Published by Chas. S. Lipschuetz Company, Portland, Oregon. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.
Penny Postcard, ca.1920s, Wind Mountain and Columbia River, ca.1920, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Penny Postcard: Columbia River and Wind Mountain, Washington, from Columbia River Highway, Oregon, ca.1920s. Penny Postcard, ca.1920s, "Columbia River and Wind Mountain, Washington, from Columbia River Highway, Oregon." Shellrock Mountain, Oregon can be seen on the left, and Wind Mountain, Washington is on the right. Image Copyright A.M. Prentiss. In the private collection of Lyn Topinka.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, October 30, 1805 ...
A cool morning, a moderate rain all the last night, after eating a partial brackfast of venison we Set out [from their camp near Drano Lake and the Little White Salmon River]     passed Several places where the rocks projected into the river & have the appearance of haveing Seperated from the mountains and fallen promiscuisly into the river, Small nitches are formed in the banks below those projecting rocks which is comon in this part of the river, Saw 4 Cascades caused by Small Streams falling from the mountains on the Lard. Side,

[The possiblities in a two-mile area are - upstream to downstream - Starvation Creek and Falls, the seasonal Cabin Creek and Falls, Warren Creek and Falls, Wonder Creek and Lancaster Falls, Lindsey Creek and Falls, and Summit Creek and Falls.]

a remarkable circumstance in this part of the river is, the Stumps of pine trees [Submerged Forest]

[The Submerged Forest existed along the reach from above Dog Mountain/Viento Creek on the upstream edge and Wind Mountain/Shellrock Mountain on the downstream edge.]

are in maney places are at Some distance in the river, and gives every appearance of the rivers being damed up below from Some cause which I am not at this time acquainted with [Bonneville Landslide],     the Current of the river is also verry jentle not exceeding 1 1/2 mile pr. hour and about 3/4 of a mile in width. Some rain, we landed above the mouth of a Small river on the Stard. Side [Wind River] and Dined ...   :  here the river widens to about one mile large Sand bar in the middle, a Great [rock] both in and out of the water, large <round> Stones, or rocks are also permiscuisly Scattered about in the river, ...     The bottoms above the mouth of this little river [Wind River] <which we Call> is rich covered with grass & firn & is about 3/4 of a mile wide rich and rises gradually, below the river (which is 60 yards wide above its mouth) the Countery rises with Steep assent. we call this little river <fr Ash> New Timbered river from a Speces of Ash <that wood> which grows on its banks of a verry large and different from any we had before Seen, and a timber resembling the beech in bark <& groth> but different in its leaf which is Smaller and the tree smaller. passed maney large rocks in the river and a large creek on the Stard. Side in the mouth of which is an Island [Rock Creek near Stevenson, Washington], passed on the right of 3 Islands <on> near the Stard. Side, and landed on an Island close under the Stard. Side at the head of the great Shute [head of the Cascades Rapids], and a little below a village of 8 large houses on a Deep bend on the Stard. Side, and opposit 2 Small Islands imediately in the head of the Shute, which Islands are covered with Pine, maney large rocks also, in the head of the Shute. Ponds back of the houses, and Countrey low for a Short distance. The day proved Cloudy dark and disagreeable with Some rain all day which kept us wet. The Countary a high mountain on each Side thickly Covered with timber, Such as Spruc, Pine, Cedar, Oake Cotton &c. &c.     I took two men and walked down three miles to examine the Shute and river below proceeded along an old Indian path, passd. an old village at 1 mile [vicinity of Ice House Lake] ...     I found by examonation that we must make a portage of the greater perpotion of our Stores 2 1/2 miles, and the Canoes we Could haul over the rocks, I returned at Dark ...     a wet disagreeable evening, the only wood we could get to burn on this little Island on which we have encamped [near Ashes Lake, the island is now under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir. Ashes Lake was near the head of the Cascade Rapids. Across from Ashes Lake is Cascade Locks, Oregon.] is the newly discovered Ash, which makes a tolerable fire. we made fifteen miles to daye





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Oregon State Archives website, 2005, "A Journey Across Oregon in 1940";    Tolan, T.L., Beeson, M.H., and Vogt, B.F., 1984, Exploring the Neogene History of the Columbia River: Discussion and Geologic Field Trip Guide to the Columbia River Gorge, Oregon Geology, vol.46, no.8, August 1984, and vol.46, no.9, September 1984, Published by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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June 2012