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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Vancouver Plains and Prairies"
Includes ... Jolie Prairie ... Lower Klickitat Trail ... Lower Plains ... Dairy Plains ... Back Plains ... Fort Plain ... Mill Plain ... First Plain ... Second Plain ... Third Plain ... Fourth Plain ... Fifth Plain ... Camas Plain ... Tea Prairie ...
Image, 2006, Columbia River from Officers Row, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia River and "Jolie Prairie", from Officers Row, Vancouver National Historic Reserve. Green grass in the foreground is today's Vancouver Barracks Parade Ground. Image taken August 26, 2006.


Vancouver Plains and Prairies ...
In 1825 the Hudson's Bay Company's established Fort Vancouver, located at Columbia River Mile (RM) 106.5, on the Washington (north) side of the river. As the Fort and developing community around the fort grew it utilized open plains and prairies for cultivation and livestock. As the Fort declined, settlers moved into these open areas and took up homesteading. Nine major "plains" were identified (Fort, Lower, Mill, First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Camas), and one large "prairie" east of the Fort became known as "Prairie du The" ("Tea Prairie").

"Plains" ...
Nine major "plains" were identified - Fort, Lower, Mill, First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Camas.

From: "The Columbian", June 10, 2017:

"When the new occupants got around to mapping the neighborhood, they took note of several open meadows scattered among the nearby forest. They referred to them as plains. Some of the plains were the result of tribal land-management practices. The native people shaped the landscape by burning prairies and meadows to increase plant and animal diversity and to improve conditions for hunting and harvesting. ... [The] Hudson's Bay's principal operations took place 'on three large natural plains named Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain," which was named for the grist mill and saw mill about a mile to the south, along the river."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

["Existing Conditions"] ... "At its height in the 1840s, Fort Vancouver consisted of thousands of acres of forests and plains, extending for twenty-five miles along the Columbia River, and stretching north from the river for distances varying from four to fifteen miles. Principal operations took place on three large natural plains named Fort Plain, Lower Plain, and Mill Plain. Five additional plains, First Plain, Second Plain, Third Plain, Fourth Plain, and Camas Plain (referred to as the Back Plains), located north and east of the three large plains, were also periodically farmed."

"Covington Map, 1846" ...
(to come)

Image, 1846, Covington Map, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
"Covington Map", 1846, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Richard Covington, 1846, Fort Vancouver and "Fort Plain", "Mill Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", and "Third Plain". Original with the Washington State History Museum, printed in "The Columbian", June 10, 2017, "Plains Explained" by Tom Vogt.


Lower Plains ...
The three lower plains (Fort, Lower, and Mill) corresponded to natural river terraces that stepped down toward the Columbia River and created a series of open spaces surrounded by a fairly dense fir forest. Fort Vancouver's Lower Plain was sometimes referred to as "Dairy Plain".

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

"According to Charles Wilkes, the dairies on the farm were moved periodically. They were always situated on Lower Plain, sometimes referred to as "Dairy Plain." Maps from 1844 and 1846 indicate at least one dairy was located southwest of the stockade, along the river, where a few structures, pens and fields were indicated along the river."

Back Plains ...
The six upper plains (First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Camas) were small open pasture areas initially used by the Indians and located on the flats above the Columbia River terraces. These corresponded to the plains and prairies which Native American tribes used, traveling from the south-central Cascades to the Columbia River, and were known as the "Klickitat Trail". These plains and prairies were first mapped between 1853 and 1855 by Pacific Railroad surveyors George McClellan (1853) and James G. Cooper (1854, 1855).

According to the Vancouver National Historic Reserve Cultural Landscape Report, 2003:

"The lower Klickitat Trail prairies mapped by McClellan and Cooper were called Alack-ae ("turtle place"), Wahwaikee ("acorn"), Pahpoopahpoo ("burrowing owls"), Heowheow, Kolsas, and Simsik by the Indians according to J.F. Minter's records. Hudson's Bay Company settlers re-named these prairies "Fort Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", "Third Plain", "Fourth Plain", and "Fifth Plain", respectively. Cooper noted that First Plain through Fifth Plain were covered with good grass for horses, and eight edible berry species; ..."

Plains and Prairies Today ...
Today the names "Mill Plain" and "Fourth Plain" still exist as east-west road names, and there is a small north/south creek crossing Fourth Plain Road east of the community of Orchards which is called "Fifth Plain Creek".


More ...


Plains and Prairies, etc.



Fort Plain ("Jolie Prairie") ... (Alack-ae, "turtle place")
From: "The Columbian", June 10, 2017:

  • "Fort Plain, which extended from the stockade to the east."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • ["Analysis and Evaluation"] ... "The site of Fort Vancouver, called Jolie Prairie, was located near a Chinook Indian village named Ske-chew-twa that was located on the site of the W.W.II. Kaiser Shipyards. Jolie Prairie was later named Fort Plain by the Hudson's Bay Company, and became the core of Fort Vancouver."

  • [1824-1828] ... "The site of the Hudson's Bay farm at Fort Vancouver, at its greatest extent in the 1840s, consisted of three large open meadows--called by the Hudson's Bay Company Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain--in the forest along the Columbia River. There were also five open spaces or "plains" north and east of the three principal plains, jointly referred to as the Back Plains, on which crops were periodically raised. However, all available evidence indicates that during this first historic period, 1824-1828, the Company's site development was principally confined to the region of Fort Plain, later to become the heart of the Fort Vancouver farm."

  • [1824-1828] ... "What became known as Fort Plain was a long, irregularly-shaped meadow with natural terraces extending down to the River, located roughly in the center of the site. It ran for approximately 3 1/2 miles along the Columbia River, approaching a mile or so in depth at its widest. The lowest terrace was subject to Spring inundations: the 1844 stockade area map shows the high water mark during the river's spring freshets extended almost one-half mile into the plain in places, depending on the changes in topography. There were two lakes, referred to by Simpson, which were located in the approximate center of the plain. These lakes were occasionally encompassed in the spring floods. The northern and eastern boundaries were defined by dense coniferous forest on rising ground, with a bluff or bench, occasionally referred to as the "Upper Prairie," to the northeast, rising about sixty feet above the river plain. This bluff was the site chosen for the original fort , which was located roughly in the middle of the bench, overlooking the plain below. By the 1840s, the bluff was referred to as "Old Fort Hill.""

  • "In 1846, Fort Plain included the stockade; garden; orchard; a number of cultivated fields, general farm and community oriented structures, and scattered residences; what is now called Kanaka Village; and the river front complex, which included the hospital, salmon store, salt house, and other buildings."

From: Vancouver National Historic Reserve Cultural Landscape Report, 2005:

  • ["Lower Klickitat Trail"] ... "The lower Klickitat Trail prairies mapped by McClellan and Cooper [1853-1855] were called Alack-ae ("turtle place"), Wahwaikee ("acorn"), Pahpoopahpoo ("burrowing owls"), Heowheow, Kolsas, and Simsik by the Indians according to J.F. Minter's records. Hudson's Bay Company settlers re-named these prairies "Fort Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", "Third Plain", "Fourth Plain", and "Fifth Plain", respectively. Cooper noted that First Plain through Fifth Plain were covered with good grass for horses, and eight edible berry species."

Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver Parade Grounds, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Fall colors, Fort Vancouver Parade Grounds, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken October 23, 2006.


Lower Plain ("Vancouver Lake Lowlands") ...
From: "The Columbian", June 10, 2017:

  • "Lower Plain was on the opposite side of Fort Vancouver, a lowland that extended west from the stockade. Further west, there are references to Dairy Plain; it is not designated on Covington's map (1846), but he did sketch in a dairy, about 1.5 miles west of the fort, and extensive pasture land near the current location of the Port of Vancouver."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • [1829-1846] ... "Lower Plain, west and northwest of Fort Plain, was an immense open plain, roughly triangular in shape, bounded on the east by the finger of forest separating it from Fort Plain; the forest extended to the northern edge of the plain. In the north of the plain was "Big Lake," (now Vancouver Lake) a somewhat circular lake, approximately two miles in diameter at that time, from which the "Lake River" sprang, forming the northwest boundary of the plain as it ran to the Columbia River, which formed the south and southwest edge of the plain. A finger of the lake extended south (it shows southeast on the 1844 map), forming a narrow strip of open meadow to the east of it, between one-half and three-quarters of a mile in width, in which fenced fields were laid out, certainly by the mid 1830s. Throughout most of this period, cattle, horses and sheep were pastured in the unfenced open plain, which stretched in a narrow band between river and forest for miles down river to the junction with the Lewis River. There were two more lakes on the plain: Chalifoux Lake, and another, smaller lake to the north of it. In the southeast corner, a dairy, with enclosures and structures, and a piggery with enclosures and structures, and several cultivated fields along the river were located."

  • [1829-1846] ... "Lower Plain was bounded on the east by a stretch of forest and undergrowth extending from the forests of the north to the riverbank, immediately west of Fort Plain and Kanaka Village, about a mile and one-half from the stockade. It ran for about three-quarters of a mile in a narrow band along the river, and then broadened to three or more miles in width, to the southern tip of Big (Vancouver) Lake. A string of narrow lakes formed the northerly border of this narrow band, north of which was an open meadow on which the Company, fairly early on, established a farm called West Plain Farm, generally considered part of Lower Plain. The plain encompassed two smaller lakes beyond Big Lake--Chalifoux and Wapato Lakes--and continued north in a narrow strip to the mouth of the Cathlapootl (Lewis) River. Even Company employees were not certain of the extent of their claim on Lower Plain: in later testimony Dugald Mactavish said at one point that the frontage of Lower Plain ran for ten miles down river, and at another time, said five miles. seems likely that the Company considered any land south and east of the Lake River within its boundaries."

  • [1829-1846] ... "Functionally, the Lower Plain had two uses in its early years of development: the West Plain farm, which contained cultivated fields, and the remainder of the plain, which was used to pasture cattle, horses, some sheep and pigs, and, apparently, goats. By 1844, the narrow stretch of the plain just west of the forest separating Lower Plain from Fort Plain had been developed to include cultivated fields, a piggery and a dairy."

  • [1829-1846] ... "According to Charles Wilkes, the dairies on the farm were moved periodically. They were always situated on Lower Plain, sometimes referred to as "Dairy Plain." Maps from 1844 and 1846 indicate at least one dairy was located southwest of the stockade, along the river, where a few structures, pens and fields were indicated along the river."

  • [1847-1860] ... "The 1859 Covington map indicates squatters had subdivided, and cultivated and enclosed any cultivable land in the Lower Plain. Amos Short's claim was in the vicinity of the Company's former dairy. To the north, encompassing the former West Plain farm, partially demolished by the 1844 fire, were a string of cultivated fields with barns and houses, following the pattern of cultivation established by the Company, up to the northern pastures bordering what is now Lake Vancouver. To the northwest, along the river edge, was another series of cultivated fields, barns and houses, primarily on lands formerly cultivated by the Company. The claimants to these lands included those listed by McKinlay, including former Company employees, as well as several others."

Image, 2008, Scenic, Shillapoo Lake, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Scenic, Shillapoo Lake, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken December 16, 2008.
Image, 2015, Fifth Plain Creek, Clark County, Washington, click to enlarge
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Lower River Road, looking north, Vancouver Lake Lowlands, Clark County, Washington. Image taken July 13, 2015.


Mill Plain ...
From: "The Columbian", June 10, 2017:

  • "According to a 1992 Park Service publication, Hudson's Bay's principal operations took place "on three large natural plains named Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain," which was named for the grist mill and saw mill about a mile to the south, along the river."

  • "A Park Service historian described Mill Plain as the largest cultivated area in the Fort Vancouver farming operation, measuring about three miles by an average of three-quarters of a mile. On today's map, it was in the vicinity of Mill Plain Boulevard, between 104th and 164th avenues."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • [1829-1846] ... "Mill Plain, approximately three miles east of the Fort Plain, was an opening in the forest, approximately four miles long and three-quarters of a mile wide, which included the Mill Plain Farm, consisting, in 1844, of enclosed fields and barns. About one and one-half miles south of Mill Plain Farm, and about two and one-half miles from the edge of Fort Plain, was the Gristmill, located near the Columbia River, on a north-south stream feeding the river. About one mile east of the gristmill, was the sawmill, also on a stream feeding into the Columbia."

  • [1857-1860] ... "Isaac Ebey reported to Isaac Stevens that in late 1853 or early 1854 that most of the Company's "possessions" in the Mill Plain area had been abandoned. ...   Covington's 1859 map shows fenced enclosures and an unidentified structure at the west end of the farm, in what had been Company pastures, and a house and barn belonging to a "Murray" in the center of the south edge of the Company's cultivated fields."

Image, 2016, Mill Plain Road, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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View of Mill Plain Road looking east, Vancouver, Washington. View from inside moving car on the Interstate 5 exit. Image taken August 12, 2016.
Image, 2015, Mill Plain Road, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Mill Plain Road, heading east, Vancouver, Washington. View from inside moving car. Image taken August 9, 2015.
Image, 2015, David Douglas Park, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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David Douglas Park, Vancouver, Washington. West end of the "Mill Plain". Image taken August 9, 2015.
Image, 2017, Mill Plain exit off I-205, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Mill Plain exit off of Interstate 205, Vancouver, Washington. Heading south. Image taken July 4, 2017.


Gristmill and Sawmill ...
From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • [1829-1846] ... "Mill Plain, approximately three miles east of the Fort Plain, was an opening in the forest, approximately four miles long and three-quarters of a mile wide, which included the Mill Plain Farm, consisting, in 1844, of enclosed fields and barns. About one and one-half miles south of Mill Plain Farm, and about two and one-half miles from the edge of Fort Plain, was the Gristmill, located near the Columbia River, on a north-south stream feeding the river. About one mile east of the gristmill, was the sawmill, also on a stream feeding into the Columbia."

  • ["Analysis and Evaluation"] ... "The streams on Mill Plain, six miles east of Fort Plain, provided a power source for both a grist mill and a saw mill."

Donation Land Claims (DLC) ...

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • [1847-1860] ... "By 1853-54, the mill sites were claimed by several individuals. Daniel Harvey, McLoughlin's son-in-law and the Company employee in charge of the Mill Plain farm had a claim dating to the mid-1840s which included both the grist and sawmills. The Company's millwright, William Crate, claimed 640 acres, which included the gristmill; Isaac Ebey said that in 1853 Crate had not made any improvements on it, but that a house, barn and about fifty acres were in cultivation on the claim, almost certainly Company improvements dating to the 1840s. A Gabriel Barktroth claimed 640 acres, which included the sawmill, and a Mr. Maxon also claimed 640 acres of land in the vicinity of the mills, overlapping Barktroth's claim. Dugald Mactavish said that, by 1858, the sawmills were "virtually in possession of a man named Taylor, "but that one of the flour mills was in fair condition and still working."

From: U.S. Bureau of Land Management website, General Land Office (GLO) Records database, 2015, and Cadastral Surveys (tax maps) database (2015):
  • Harvey:
    • The GLO database did not have an entry for Daniel Harvey, however it shows a John F. Harvey and Michael White being granted title to 158.70 acres of T2N R2E, Sections 25, 26, and 35, on July 15, 1865 (1855 ScripWarrant Act).
    • The 1863 cadastral survey map does not show this claim.

  • Crate:
    • The GLO database shows William F. Crate and Sarah Crate being granted title to 640.94 acres of T1N R2E, Sections 3 and 4, and T2N R2E, Sections 33 and 34, on February 25, 1865 (1850 Oregon-Donation Act).
    • The 1863 cadastral survey maps show the DLC of William F. Crate in T1N R2E, Section 2 (198 acres) and T2N R2E, Sections 33 and 34 (442.94 acres).

  • Gabriel Barktroth not found in either database (2015).

  • Maxon:
    • The GLO database shows Hamilton J.G. Maxon being granted title to 641.60 acres of T1N R3E, Sections 1, 2, 11, and 12, on February 25, 1864 (1850 Oregon-Donation Act).
    • The 1856 cadastral survey map (tax map) for T1N R3E shows a "Maxon's Mill" on La Camas Creek in Section 2, another "Maxon's Mill" on La Camas Creek (north of "Washoukal Creek") in Section 12, and the homestead of H.J.G. Maxon on the right bank of La Camas Creek in Sections 1 and 12.
    • The 1863 cadastral survey map for T1N R3E shows the DLC of H.J.G. Maxon in Sections 1, 2, 11, and 12 (641.60 acres).

  • Taylor:
    • The GLO database shows Levi S. Taylor was granted title to 120 acres of T2N R2E, Section 14, on December 15, 1882 (1862 Homestead EntryOriginal).
    • The 1863 cadastral survey maps show the DLC of E.J. Taylor located in T1N R2E, Section 3 (167.61 acres) and T2N R2E, Section 34 (152.23 acres). Taylor's claim was immeditately east of William Crate's DLC.

Image, 2008, Hudson's Bay Sawmills Sign, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Hudson's Bay sawmills sign, Vancouver, Washington. Location near Vancouver Trout Hatchery, Evergreen Highway, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken July 25, 2008.


Back Plains ...
From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • ["Analysis and Evaluation"] ... "At its height, development at Fort Vancouver was located in three large prairies called Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain, and five smaller prairies to the northeast called the Back Plains (First Plain, Second Plain, Third Plain, Fourth Plain, Fifth Plain and Camas Plain)."

  • [1824-1828] ... "The site of the Hudson's Bay farm at Fort Vancouver, at its greatest extent in the 1840s, consisted of three large open meadows--called by the Hudson's Bay Company Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain--in the forest along the Columbia River. There were also five open spaces or "plains" north and east of the three principal plains, jointly referred to as the Back Plains, on which crops were periodically raised. However, all available evidence indicates that during this first historic period, 1824-1828, the Company's site development was principally confined to the region of Fort Plain, later to become the heart of the Fort Vancouver farm."

  • [1829-1846] ... "The principal clusters were located in naturally occurring open meadows in the forest, and along the Columbia River: Fort Plain, Lower Plain, Mill Plain, the sawmill, the gristmill, and a series prairies located in the forest north and east of the Fort Plain, referred to as the Back Plains, including First Plain, Second Plain, Third Plain, Fourth Plain, and Camas Plain. These names were in general use in the 1830s, and although additional fields were cultivated and new structures erected, the overall organization and use of these open spaces remained the same throughout this historic period."

  • [1829-1846] ... "To the northeast of Fort Plain was a series of forest openings making up the Back Plains, of which Fourth Plain was by far the largest First Plain was about two miles from the north edge of Fort Plain; Second Plain a mile beyond that, Third Plain approximately one-half mile beyond Second Plain, and Fourth Plain about a mile beyond Third Plain. The Camas Plain was at least another mile beyond."

  • [1829-1846] ... "North and northeast of Fort Plain were the Back Plains, a series of open meadows or prairies in the forests which, during this period, the company used to raise crops and pasture livestock. Thomas Lowe later described their uses: "Lying back of the fort there were several plains separated from each other by belts of timber--those known as the first, second and third plains had each been farmed; the fourth and camass [Camas] plains were used for pasturage.""

  • [1829-1846] ... "First Plain was the nearest to Fort Plain, about three miles northeast of the stockade. It was an irregularly shaped opening, which according to James Douglas in 1838, contained about one hundred acres of "poor land never flooded.". Second Plain, about a mile east of First Plain was smaller; at least according to the 1844 Peers map its area appears to be about two-thirds the size of First Plain, or about seventy acres. Third Plain, about one-half mile east of Second Plain was, according to the Peers map, slightly larger than either of the first two plains. Fourth Plain was, according to historic accounts, about seven miles from the stockade, and was quite large in area, as indicated on the Peers map; its relative size being approximately equivalent to the Mill Plain. East of it was Camas Plain--also referred to as Kalsas, Kolsas [in error, Kolsas and presumably Kalsas were Fourth Plain and not Camas Plain],   La Kamass and Camass Plain. Another plain is referred to in the historic literature as Simsik Plain, apparently located six miles northeast of Fourth Plain, which may have been used to pasture cattle, and yet another plain, the Prairie du The, apparently located about ten miles east of the sawmill was used to graze cattle, according to William Crate's later testimony. ...   These plains were connected by a road which extended from Upper Mill Road northeast of the stockade through the forest and plains. To reach the Back Plains it was necessary to ford what is now known as Burntbridge Creek, where, by 1844, a bridge had been built."

Lower Klickitat Trail ...

The six upper plains (First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Camas) were small open pasture areas initially used by the Indians and located on the flats above the Columbia River terraces. These corresponded to the plains and prairies which Native American tribes used, traveling from the south-central Cascades to the Columbia River, and were known as the "Klickitat Trail". These plains and prairies were first mapped between 1853 and 1855 by Pacific Railroad surveyors George McClellan (1853) and James G. Cooper (1854, 1855).

According to the Vancouver National Historic Reserve Cultural Landscape Report, 2003:

"The lower Klickitat Trail prairies mapped by McClellan and Cooper were called Alack-ae ("turtle place"), Wahwaikee ("acorn"), Pahpoopahpoo ("burrowing owls"), Heowheow, Kolsas, and Simsik by the Indians according to J.F. Minter's records. Hudson's Bay Company settlers re-named these prairies "Fort Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", "Third Plain", "Fourth Plain", and "Fifth Plain", respectively. Cooper noted that First Plain through Fifth Plain were covered with good grass for horses, and eight edible berry species; ..."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • [1847-1860] ... "The appearance of the country between Fort Vancouver and the Back Plains during this period is best described in the 1853-54 report of the U.S. Pacific railway survey expedition:

    From this stream [Burnt Bridge Creek] the country along the trail breaks into small openings or plains having no timber on them. They vary from a half to several miles in extent, are very level, as well as the adjacent country, and are separated from each other by narrow strips of woods. Kolsas, the largest of these plains, about seven miles from Vancouver, is six or seven miles long, and three or four in breadth, and connects on the south with a swampy arm of Camas plain, which stretches off to the eastward, in which direction there is a large tract of the same character of country lying along Mill creek, and running down towards the Columbia. From Kolsas the trail bears to the northeast for six miles to a plain called Simsik, about a mile and a half long. The country between Vancouver and Simsik is similar in character--heavily timbered with fir, spruce, and a dense undergrowth of maple and hazel bushes. The soil is sandy and gravelly, especially the open plains; the soil in the woods between Kolsas and Simsik is the best. The country up to Simsik is quite level; leaving Simsik east of north the country becomes hilly and broken along the trail, the hills becoming higher and more rocky as we approach the Cathlapoot'l river. Between these points the trail crosses several branches of the Cathlapoot'l...the main stream uniting with the Cathlapoot'l four miles from its junction with the Columbia."

From: Vancouver National Historic Reserve Cultural Landscape Report, 2005:

  • ["Lower Klickitat Trail"] ... "The lower Klickitat Trail prairies mapped by McClellan and Cooper [1853-1855] were called Alack-ae ("turtle place"), Wahwaikee ("acorn"), Pahpoopahpoo ("burrowing owls"), Heowheow, Kolsas, and Simsik by the Indians according to J.F. Minter's records. Hudson's Bay Company settlers re-named these prairies "Fort Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", "Third Plain", "Fourth Plain", and "Fifth Plain", respectively. Cooper noted that First Plain through Fifth Plain were covered with good grass for horses, and eight edible berry species."

Donation Land Claims (DLC) ...

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • [1829-1846] ... "The Back Plains were the first of the Company's lands to be successfully occupied by American squatters. In March of 1845 James Douglas wrote that a party of Americans had "taken possession of Prairie du The." By 1849 all the land on the Back Plains were in possession of others, The Company did not claim any land or improvements on the Back Plains in the 1846-47 inventory."

  • [1847-1860] ... "The Back Plains fell to squatters early in this period. By 1849-50, Archibald McKinlay said, all of the back plains were occupied by "others." Isaac Ebey reported that a Mr. Maxon, an "American Citizen," had claims both at the Company's sawmill site, and on Camas Plain in 1853-54, and that a number of Americans had settled on the Camas Plain. The Covington map of 1859 shows two settlers on First Plain: Durgan and Jameson [Jamison],   both with houses and barns; Shaw [Schuh]   occupies Second Plain with a house and barn, and Morrow has a house and barn on Third Plain."


First Plain ... (Wahwaikee, "acorn")
From: "The Columbian", August 9, 2006 and June 10, 2017:

  • [August 9, 2006] ... "First Plain sat north of Bridge Creek (renamed Burnt Bridge Creek after the nearby bridge burned), near the present intersection of East 18th Street and Stapleton Road."

  • [June 10, 2017] ... "First Plain - near the current site of Eleanor Roosevelt Elementary and Bagley Park ... First through Fourth Plains all roughly followed the course of Burnt Bridge Creek."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • ["Analysis and Evaluation"] ... "At its height, development at Fort Vancouver was located in three large prairies called Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain, and five smaller prairies to the northeast called the Back Plains (First Plain, Second Plain, Third Plain, Fourth Plain, Fifth Plain and Camas Plain)."

  • [1829-1846] ... "To the northeast of Fort Plain was a series of forest openings making up the Back Plains, of which Fourth Plain was by far the largest First Plain was about two miles from the north edge of Fort Plain; Second Plain a mile beyond that, Third Plain approximately one-half mile beyond Second Plain, and Fourth Plain about a mile beyond Third Plain. The Camas Plain was at least another mile beyond."

  • [1829-1846] ... "First Plain was the nearest to Fort Plain, about three miles northeast of the stockade. It was an irregularly shaped opening, which according to James Douglas in 1838, contained about one hundred acres of "poor land never flooded."."

From: Vancouver National Historic Reserve Cultural Landscape Report, 2005:

  • ["Lower Klickitat Trail"] ... "The lower Klickitat Trail prairies mapped by McClellan and Cooper [1853-1855] were called Alack-ae ("turtle place"), Wahwaikee ("acorn"), Pahpoopahpoo ("burrowing owls"), Heowheow, Kolsas, and Simsik by the Indians according to J.F. Minter's records. Hudson's Bay Company settlers re-named these prairies "Fort Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", "Third Plain", "Fourth Plain", and "Fifth Plain", respectively. Cooper noted that First Plain through Fifth Plain were covered with good grass for horses, and eight edible berry species."

Donation Land Claims (DLC) ...

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • [1847-1860] ... "The Back Plains fell to squatters early in this period. By 1849-50, Archibald McKinlay said, all of the back plains were occupied by "others." Isaac Ebey reported that a Mr. Maxon, an "American Citizen," had claims both at the Company's sawmill site, and on Camas Plain in 1853-54, and that a number of Americans had settled on the Camas Plain. The Covington map of 1859 shows two settlers on First Plain: Durgan and Jameson [Jamison],   both with houses and barns; Shaw [Schuh]   occupies Second Plain with a house and barn, and Morrow has a house and barn on Third Plain."

From: U.S. Bureau of Land Management website (2015), General Land Office (GLO) Records database and Cadastral Surveys (tax maps) database:

  • Durgan:
    • The GLO database shows Joseph Durgan Sr., and Nancy Durgan were granted title to 320 acres of T2N R1E, Section 24 and T2N R2E, Section 19 on September 2, 1874 (1850 Oregon-Donation Act).
    • The 1860 cadastral survey map shows the homestead of "J. Durgan" being located north of "Fourth Plains Road" and east of "Marble's Creek" (today's Burnt Bridge Creek) in T2N R1E, Section 24, where Fourth Plain Road crosses Marble's Creek.
    • The 1863 cadastral survey map for T2N R1E shows the DLC of Joseph Durgan being located in southeast part of Section 24.

  • Jamison:
    • The GLO database shows James Jamison and Jane Jamison were granted title to 319.87 acres of T2N R2E, Sections 19 and 30 on December 3, 1877 (1850 Oregon-Donation Act).
    • The 1863 cadastral survey map for T2N R2E shows the DLC of James Jamison (319.87 acres) at the northern edge of Section 30 and the southern part of Section 19.

Image, 1860 Cadastral detail, T2N R1E, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
First Plain ... Cadastral detail, 1860, T2N R1E, highlighting Sections 24 and 25, "Fourth Plains Road", "Mill Plain Road", and the "J. Durgan" homestead, Vancouver, Washington. Cadastral map courtesy U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 2015.

The "J. Durgan" homestead was located on First Plain, just east of today's Burnt Bridge Creek. Plotting against current maps (2015), this location is the northeast corner of Fourth Plain and Falk/42nd.
Image, 1860 Cadastral detail, T2N R2E, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
First Plain, Second Plain, and Third Plain ... Cadastral detail, 1863, T2N R2E, highlighting Sections 19, 20, and 21, and the Donation Land Claims of J. Durgan, J. Jamison, H. Schuh, and J. Morrow, Vancouver, Washington. Cadastral map courtesy U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 2015.

The Durgan and Jamison DLCs were located on First Plain, the Schuh DLC on Second Plain, and the Morrow DLC on Third Plain.


Second Plain ... (Pahpoopahpoo, "burrowing owls")
From: "The Columbian", August 9, 2006 and June 10, 2017:

  • [August 9, 2006] ... "Second Plain was farther east along the creek [Burnt Bridge Creek], stretching toward present-day 86th Avenue."

  • [June 10, 2017] ... "Second Plain - just east of the current site of Andresen Road near Burton Road ... First through Fourth Plains all roughly followed the course of Burnt Bridge Creek."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • ["Analysis and Evaluation"] ... "At its height, development at Fort Vancouver was located in three large prairies called Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain, and five smaller prairies to the northeast called the Back Plains (First Plain, Second Plain, Third Plain, Fourth Plain, Fifth Plain and Camas Plain)."

  • [1829-1846] ... "To the northeast of Fort Plain was a series of forest openings making up the Back Plains, of which Fourth Plain was by far the largest First Plain was about two miles from the north edge of Fort Plain; Second Plain a mile beyond that, Third Plain approximately one-half mile beyond Second Plain, and Fourth Plain about a mile beyond Third Plain. The Camas Plain was at least another mile beyond."

  • [1829-1846] ... "Second Plain, about a mile east of First Plain was smaller; at least according to the 1844 Peers map its area appears to be about two-thirds the size of First Plain, or about seventy acres."

From: Vancouver National Historic Reserve Cultural Landscape Report, 2005:

  • ["Lower Klickitat Trail"] ... "The lower Klickitat Trail prairies mapped by McClellan and Cooper [1853-1855] were called Alack-ae ("turtle place"), Wahwaikee ("acorn"), Pahpoopahpoo ("burrowing owls"), Heowheow, Kolsas, and Simsik by the Indians according to J.F. Minter's records. Hudson's Bay Company settlers re-named these prairies "Fort Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", "Third Plain", "Fourth Plain", and "Fifth Plain", respectively. Cooper noted that First Plain through Fifth Plain were covered with good grass for horses, and eight edible berry species."

Donation Land Claims (DLC) ...

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • [1847-1860] ... "The Back Plains fell to squatters early in this period. By 1849-50, Archibald McKinlay said, all of the back plains were occupied by "others." Isaac Ebey reported that a Mr. Maxon, an "American Citizen," had claims both at the Company's sawmill site, and on Camas Plain in 1853-54, and that a number of Americans had settled on the Camas Plain. The Covington map of 1859 shows two settlers on First Plain: Durgan and Jameson [Jamison],   both with houses and barns; Shaw [Schuh]   occupies Second Plain with a house and barn, and Morrow has a house and barn on Third Plain."

From: U.S. Bureau of Land Management website (2015), General Land Office (GLO) Records database and Cadastral Surveys (tax maps) database:

  • Schuh:
    • The GLO database shows Henry Schuh was granted title to 321 acres of T2N R2E, Sections 19 and 20 on June 30, 1873 (1850 Oregon-Donation Act).
    • The 1863 cadastral survey map for T2N R2E shows the DLC of Henry Schuh (321 acres) at the eastern edge of Section 19 and northern half of Section 20.

Image, 1860 Cadastral detail, T2N R2E, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
First Plain, Second Plain, and Third Plain ... Cadastral detail, 1863, T2N R2E, highlighting Sections 19, 20, and 21, and the Donation Land Claims of J. Durgan, J. Jamison, H. Schuh, and J. Morrow, Vancouver, Washington. Cadastral map courtesy U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 2015.

The Durgan and Jamison DLCs were located on First Plain, the Schuh DLC on Second Plain, and the Morrow DLC on Third Plain.


Third Plain ... (Heowheow)
From: "The Columbian", August 9, 2006 and June 10, 2017:

  • [August 9, 2006] ... "Just across the creek [Burnt Bridge Creek], Third Plain encompassed the area now split by Burton Road."

  • [June 10, 2017] ... "Third Plain - and area now south of Vancouver Mall extending into the Royal Oaks Country Club ... First through Fourth Plains all roughly followed the course of Burnt Bridge Creek."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • ["Analysis and Evaluation"] ... "At its height, development at Fort Vancouver was located in three large prairies called Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain, and five smaller prairies to the northeast called the Back Plains (First Plain, Second Plain, Third Plain, Fourth Plain, Fifth Plain and Camas Plain)."

  • [1829-1846] ... "To the northeast of Fort Plain was a series of forest openings making up the Back Plains, of which Fourth Plain was by far the largest First Plain was about two miles from the north edge of Fort Plain; Second Plain a mile beyond that, Third Plain approximately one-half mile beyond Second Plain, and Fourth Plain about a mile beyond Third Plain. The Camas Plain was at least another mile beyond."

  • [1829-1846] ... "Third Plain, about one-half mile east of Second Plain was, according to the Peers map, slightly larger than either of the first two plains."

From: Vancouver National Historic Reserve Cultural Landscape Report, 2005:

  • ["Lower Klickitat Trail"] ... "The lower Klickitat Trail prairies mapped by McClellan and Cooper [1853-1855] were called Alack-ae ("turtle place"), Wahwaikee ("acorn"), Pahpoopahpoo ("burrowing owls"), Heowheow, Kolsas, and Simsik by the Indians according to J.F. Minter's records. Hudson's Bay Company settlers re-named these prairies "Fort Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", "Third Plain", "Fourth Plain", and "Fifth Plain", respectively. Cooper noted that First Plain through Fifth Plain were covered with good grass for horses, and eight edible berry species."

Donation Land Claims (DLC) ...

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • [1847-1860] ... "The Back Plains fell to squatters early in this period. By 1849-50, Archibald McKinlay said, all of the back plains were occupied by "others." Isaac Ebey reported that a Mr. Maxon, an "American Citizen," had claims both at the Company's sawmill site, and on Camas Plain in 1853-54, and that a number of Americans had settled on the Camas Plain. The Covington map of 1859 shows two settlers on First Plain: Durgan and Jameson [Jamison],   both with houses and barns; Shaw [Schuh]   occupies Second Plain with a house and barn, and Morrow has a house and barn on Third Plain."

From: U.S. Bureau of Land Management website (2015), General Land Office (GLO) Records database and Cadastral Surveys (tax maps) database:

  • Morrow:
    • The GLO database shows George Morrow and Elizabeth Morrow were granted title to 639.03 acres of T2N R2E, Sections 16, 17, 20, and 21 on September 1, 1865 (1850 Oregon-Donation Act).
    • The 1860 cadastral survey map (tax map) shows the homestead of "Wm Morrow" being located south of "Fourth Plains Road" (and north of another unnamed road) in the eastern part of Secton 20 and the western part of Section 21.
    • The 1863 cadastral survey map for T2N R2E shows the DLC of John Morrow (639.03 acres) in the eastern edge of Section 30 and the western part of Section 21, a claim which extends just slightly into the southeast corner of Section 17 and the southern edge of Section 16.

Image, 1860 Cadastral detail, T2N R2E, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Third Plain ... Cadastral detail, 1860, T2N R2E, highlighting Sections 20 and 21, "Fourth Plains Road" and the "Wm. Morrow" homestead, Vancouver, Washington. Cadastral map courtesy U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 2015.

The "Wm. Morrow" homestead was located on Third Plain.
Image, 1860 Cadastral detail, T2N R2E, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
First Plain, Second Plain, and Third Plain ... Cadastral detail, 1863, T2N R2E, highlighting Sections 19, 20, and 21, and the Donation Land Claims of J. Durgan, J. Jamison, H. Schuh, and J. Morrow, Vancouver, Washington. Cadastral map courtesy U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 2015.

The Durgan and Jamison DLCs were located on First Plain, the Schuh DLC on Second Plain, and the Morrow DLC on Third Plain.


Fourth Plain ... (Kolsas)
From: "The Columbian", August 9, 2006 and June 10, 2017:

  • [August 9, 2006] ... "A huge clearing in what is now Orchards and Sifton was called the Fourth Plain, with the Fifth Plain near present-day Ward Road. ... The road to the Fourth Plain took its name, as did the creek near the Fifth Plain. ... Beyond that, these clearings took the French name, "Prairies", given by voyageurs working for Hudson's Bay."

  • [June 10, 2017] ... "Fourth Plain - now known as the Orchards and Sifton areas ... First through Fourth Plains all roughly followed the course of Burnt Bridge Creek."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • ["Analysis and Evaluation"] ... "At its height, development at Fort Vancouver was located in three large prairies called Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain, and five smaller prairies to the northeast called the Back Plains (First Plain, Second Plain, Third Plain, Fourth Plain, Fifth Plain and Camas Plain)."

  • [1829-1846] ... "To the northeast of Fort Plain was a series of forest openings making up the Back Plains, of which Fourth Plain was by far the largest First Plain was about two miles from the north edge of Fort Plain; Second Plain a mile beyond that, Third Plain approximately one-half mile beyond Second Plain, and Fourth Plain about a mile beyond Third Plain. The Camas Plain was at least another mile beyond."

  • [1829-1846] ... "Fourth Plain was, according to historic accounts, about seven miles from the stockade, and was quite large in area, as indicated on the Peers map; its relative size being approximately equivalent to the Mill Plain. East of it was Camas Plain--also referred to as Kalsas, Kolsas [in error, Kolsas and presumably Kalsas were Fourth Plain and not Camas Plain],   La Kamass and Camass Plain. Another plain is referred to in the historic literature as Simsik Plain, apparently located six miles northeast of Fourth Plain, which may have been used to pasture cattle, and yet another plain, the Prairie du The, apparently located about ten miles east of the sawmill was used to graze cattle, according to William Crate's later testimony."

From: Vancouver National Historic Reserve Cultural Landscape Report, 2005:

  • ["Lower Klickitat Trail"] ... "The lower Klickitat Trail prairies mapped by McClellan and Cooper [1853-1855] were called Alack-ae ("turtle place"), Wahwaikee ("acorn"), Pahpoopahpoo ("burrowing owls"), Heowheow, Kolsas, and Simsik by the Indians according to J.F. Minter's records. Hudson's Bay Company settlers re-named these prairies "Fort Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", "Third Plain", "Fourth Plain", and "Fifth Plain", respectively. Cooper noted that First Plain through Fifth Plain were covered with good grass for horses, and eight edible berry species."

Today:   In Orchards, at the corner of Covington Road and NE Fourth Plain Boulevard, there is a mural depicting circa 1920 rural living. One block further north is the Orchards Feed Mill, the oldest building in Orchards. The Orchards Feed Mill has been in existence since 1889.

Image, 2017, Fourth Plain, Clark County, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Fourth Plain, Clark County, Washington. Image taken May 3, 2017.
Image, 2006, Mural, Fourth Plain, Orchards, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Mural, Fourth Plain, Orchards, Washington. Image taken November 25, 2006.
Image, 2006, Orchards Feed Mill, Orchards, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Orchards Feed Mill, Orchards, Washington. Image taken November 25, 2006.


Fifth Plain ... (Simsik)
From: "The Columbian", August 9, 2006 and June 10, 2017:

  • [August 9, 2006] ... "A huge clearing in what is now Orchards and Sifton was called the Fourth Plain, with the Fifth Plain near present-day Ward Road. ... The road to the Fourth Plain took its name, as did the creek near the Fifth Plain. ... Beyond that, these clearings took the French name, "Prairies", given by voyageurs working for Hudson's Bay."

  • [June 10, 2017] ... "Fifth Plain - east of Brush Prairie and south of Hockinson."

  • [June 10, 2017] ... "You can still find Fifth Plain Creek on local maps; its lower stem crosses Fourth Plain Boulevard just east of Ward Road. The Fifth Plain name also identified a public institution long after the Hudson's Bay Company left town. There was a Fifth Plain School well into the 20th century. The name went away in 1929 when voters in the Fifth Plain and Hockinson school districts voted to consolidate."

According to Robert Hitchman in "Place Names of Washington" (Washington Historical Society, 1985):

Fifth Plain:   "A plain 10 miles northeast of Vancouver on upper Fifth Plain Creek, south central Clark County. This name was applied by Hudson's Bay Company, which used several plains for animal pasture, and numbered them consecutively from Fort Vancouver."

Fifth Plain Creek:   "This creek rises in central Clark County; flows 8 miles southwest to Lackamas Creek near Proebstel."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • ["Analysis and Evaluation"] ... "At its height, development at Fort Vancouver was located in three large prairies called Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain, and five smaller prairies to the northeast called the Back Plains (First Plain, Second Plain, Third Plain, Fourth Plain, Fifth Plain and Camas Plain)."

  • [1829-1846] ... "To the northeast of Fort Plain was a series of forest openings making up the Back Plains, of which Fourth Plain was by far the largest First Plain was about two miles from the north edge of Fort Plain; Second Plain a mile beyond that, Third Plain approximately one-half mile beyond Second Plain, and Fourth Plain about a mile beyond Third Plain. The Camas Plain was at least another mile beyond."

  • [1829-1846] ... "Fourth Plain was, according to historic accounts, about seven miles from the stockade, and was quite large in area, as indicated on the Peers map; its relative size being approximately equivalent to the Mill Plain. East of it was Camas Plain--also referred to as Kalsas, Kolsas [in error, Kolsas and presumably Kalsas were Fourth Plain and not Camas Plain],   La Kamass and Camass Plain. Another plain is referred to in the historic literature as Simsik Plain, apparently located six miles northeast of Fourth Plain, which may have been used to pasture cattle, and yet another plain, the Prairie du The, apparently located about ten miles east of the sawmill was used to graze cattle, according to William Crate's later testimony."

From: Vancouver National Historic Reserve Cultural Landscape Report, 2005:

  • ["Lower Klickitat Trail"] ... "The lower Klickitat Trail prairies mapped by McClellan and Cooper [1853-1855] were called Alack-ae ("turtle place"), Wahwaikee ("acorn"), Pahpoopahpoo ("burrowing owls"), Heowheow, Kolsas, and Simsik by the Indians according to J.F. Minter's records. Hudson's Bay Company settlers re-named these prairies "Fort Plain", "First Plain", "Second Plain", "Third Plain", "Fourth Plain", and "Fifth Plain", respectively. Cooper noted that First Plain through Fifth Plain were covered with good grass for horses, and eight edible berry species."

Today:   East of Orchards, Fifth Plain Creek flows into Lacamas Creek. Fourth Plain Road crosses Fifth Plain Creek in T2N R3E, Section 7, approximately at 4540'19"N and 12229'41"W.

Image, 2015, Fifth Plain Creek, Clark County, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Fifth Plain Creek Watershed, Clark County, Washington. Where Fourth Plain Road crosses Fifth Plain Creek, view looking west. Image taken August 7, 2015.
Image, 2015, Fifth Plain Creek, Clark County, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Fifth Plain Creek looking downstream, Clark County, Washington. Where Fourth Plain Road crosses Fifth Plain Creek, view looking south. Image taken August 7, 2015.
Image, 2017, Fifth Plain Creek, Clark County, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Fifth Plain Creek looking upstream, Clark County, Washington. Where Fourth Plain Road crosses Fifth Plain Creek, view from moving car looking north. Image taken May 3, 2017.
Image, 2015, Fifth Plain Creek, Clark County, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Fifth Plain Creek watershed, view northeast, Clark County, Washington. Where Fourth Plain Road crosses Fifth Plain Creek, view looking northeast. Image taken August 7, 2015.


Camas Plain ...
From: "The Columbian", August 9, 2006 and June 10, 2017:

  • [August 9, 2006] ... "A huge clearing in what is now Orchards and Sifton was called the Fourth Plain, with the Fifth Plain near present-day Ward Road. ... The road to the Fourth Plain took its name, as did the creek near the Fifth Plain. ... Beyond that, these clearings took the French name, "Prairies", given by voyageurs working for Hudson's Bay."

  • [June 10, 2017] ... "Camas (or Lacamas) Plain was northwest of Lacamas Lake."

From: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992:

  • ["Analysis and Evaluation"] ... "At its height, development at Fort Vancouver was located in three large prairies called Fort Plain, Lower Plain and Mill Plain, and five smaller prairies to the northeast called the Back Plains (First Plain, Second Plain, Third Plain, Fourth Plain, Fifth Plain and Camas Plain)."

  • [1829-1846] ... "To the northeast of Fort Plain was a series of forest openings making up the Back Plains, of which Fourth Plain was by far the largest First Plain was about two miles from the north edge of Fort Plain; Second Plain a mile beyond that, Third Plain approximately one-half mile beyond Second Plain, and Fourth Plain about a mile beyond Third Plain. The Camas Plain was at least another mile beyond."

  • [1829-1846] ... "Fourth Plain was, according to historic accounts, about seven miles from the stockade, and was quite large in area, as indicated on the Peers map; its relative size being approximately equivalent to the Mill Plain. East of it was Camas Plain--also referred to as Kalsas, Kolsas [in error, Kolsas and presumably Kalsas were Fourth Plain and not Camas Plain],   La Kamass and Camass Plain. Another plain is referred to in the historic literature as Simsik Plain, apparently located six miles northeast of Fourth Plain, which may have been used to pasture cattle, and yet another plain, the Prairie du The, apparently located about ten miles east of the sawmill was used to graze cattle, according to William Crate's later testimony."


Prairie du The ("Tea Prairie") ...
[More]

Image, 2006, Steigerwald Lake, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Steigerwald Lake NWR, Washington, as seen from Crown Point, Oregon. Early explorers and traders called the area of Washougal and Steigerwald Lake "Tea Prairie". Image taken October 21, 2006.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, ...
 




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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Carinci, J., (Columbian staff writer), 2006, "What's Up With That? - So where are the first three plains?", IN: "The Columbian", August 9, 2006;    Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Cultural Landscape Report, 1992;    Hunn, E., 2003, Anthropological Sutdy of Yakama Tribe: Traditional Resource Harvest Sites West of the Crest of the Cascades Mountains in Washington State and below the Cascades of the Columbia River (preliminary draft): Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, October 11, 2003;    U.S. War Department, 1855, "Reports of explorations and surveys: to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Volume 1", Joseph Henry and Spencer Fullerton Baird, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, A.O.P. Nicholson, Printer;    Vancouver National Historic Reserve Cultural Landscape Report, October 2005, Produced by Jones & Jones Architects and Landscape Architects, Ltd., Seattle, Washington, for the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.;    Vogt, T., (Columbian Science, Military & History Reporter), 2017, "Clark Asks: The Plains explained", IN: "The Columbian", June 10, 2017;

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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June 2017