Lewis and Clark's Columbia River
Home Regions Campsites Penny Postcards My Corps of Discovery Image Index Links About This Site Main Menu
Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Skamokawa and Skamokawa Creek, Washington"
Includes ... Skamokawa ... "Little Venice" ... Chief Skamokawa ... Skamokawa Creek ... "Orchards River" ... "Pimeca Creek" ... "Pinnea Creek" ... Skamokawa Historic District ... Bayview Cannery (Bay View Cannery) ... Brooks Slough ... Columbia River Gillnet Boat ... Lutes Mountain and Moe Hill ... Redmen Hall ... Skamokawa Landing ... Skamokawa Vista Park ... Steamboat Slough ... National Register of Historic Places ...
Image, 2011, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Skamokawa, Washington, from bridge crossing Brooks Slough. Image taken July 6, 2011.


Skamokawa ...
The Washington town of Skamokawa is located on the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 33.5, where Steamboat Slough joins the mouth of the Skamokawa Creek. Skamokawa was founded in 1844. Originally the town was a river community known as "Little Venice", and was visited daily by large sternwheel steamboats running between Portland and Astoria. The homes and businesses were built facing the river. In 1917 that the town was linked by road to the neighboring communities, and in the early 1930s Washington State Highway 4 was finished linking Skamokawa to the rest of the state. Seven miles upstream from Skamokawa is Cathalamet, Washington. Just offshore lies Price Island, part of the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for Columbian White-Tailed Deer. Downstream are the "points" of Three Tree and Jim Crow. Pillar Rock lies 6 miles downstream. Lewis and Clark spent the nights of November 7 and November 25, 1805 at Pillar Rock. The name "Skamokawa" is an original Chinook Indian name meaning "Smoke on the water", referring to the fog often encounted at the mouth of Skamokawa Creek.

Skamokawa Creek Drainage ...
Skamokawa Creek originates in the Willapa Hills and flows in a generally southwest direction, merging with the Brooks Slough and Steamboat Slough before emptying into the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 33.5. The Washington town of Skamokawa developed at this junction. Price Island, a part of the Julia Butler Hansen Wildlife Refuge, is also located at the junction. Major tributaries to Skamokawa Creek include the Wilson, Falk, McDonald, and Standard Creeks, and the Left and West Forks. Forestry is the dominant land use in the upper watershed, and agriculture and rural residential development occur in the lower reaches.

Early Skamokawa ...
Lewis and Clark first met Chief Skamokawa at Fort Clatsop on December 29, 1805. They presented the Chief with a "medal of a Small Size" and a "piece of red ribin to tie around the top of his Hat".

In 1792 Lieutenant Broughton of the Captain George Vancouver Exedition called Skamokawa Creek the "Orchards River", after H.H. Orchard, the clerk on Captain Vancouver's ship. Broughton and his group spent the night near Orchard's River and passed a "very uncomfortable night, owing to the dampness of the situation". Broughton believed the area west of a Three Tree Point and Aldrich Point line was the estuary of the Columbia, with the "river proper" beginning at the east.

"... The two points of entrance into the river are formed by low marshy land, the southernmost seemed to be an island and other small islands; and to the N.W. of the most northern, a branch took a northerly direction, which was named Orchard's River; in one of these the party passed a very uncomfortable night, owing to the dampness of their situation. ..." [Vancouver/Broughton, October 25, 1792]

In 1841 Charles Wilkes of the U.S. Exploring Expedition called this creek "Pimeca Creek" and nearby Elochoman Slough was called "Oluman Creek".

"... Two creeks enter on the north shore, the Pimeca and Oluman. They afford good water: at this part the banks are low and marshy, but soon rise in hills. ..." [Wilkes, 1841]

Some early maps had Skamokawa Creek labeled as "Pinnea Creek".

The U.S. Geological Survey's Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) lists "Skomaukik Creek" as an early name for Skamokawa Creek.

The 1871 cadastral survey (tax survey) for T9N R6W has Skamokawa Creek labeled as "Skomaukie River". Steamboat Slough was "Skomaukie Slough" and Price Island was "Skamaukie Island". Brooks Slough was "Brook's Slough".

The area around Skamokawa Creek was settled in the mid 1800s.

"There are scattered references to settlement in the area during the 1850s and by the late 1860s and early 1870s a sizeable migration was in process, mainly from the Scandinavian countries. By 1870 Skamokawa had grown sufficiently to be organized as a Road District and the first store, Moe Store, opened in 1872. The Post Office was established on January 27, 1873 with Albert Moe as the Postmaster." [National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, 1976, Skamokawa Historic District, #76001923]

"Winter Town" ...
"Lewis and Clark came to the area of Skamokawa on November 7, 1805 and, according to their diary, found a village of seven indifferent houses in the area where they purchased a dog, some fish, wappato, roots and two beaver skins for making a robe. In Curtis' "The North American Indian" the Indian name for the village is given as Chahulklihum, or Winter Town, and as Altoona was known as Chaquayalhum, or Summer Town it is reasonable to assume that the Wahkiakums camped in Skamokawa in the winter and moved to Altoona in the summer. The supposition that Altoona was inhabited in summer by the Wahkiakums is borne out by the Wilkes "Narrative". In the early 1840s a chief named Skamokawa had his main lodge there when the Wilkes expedition visited."


Source:    National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, 1976, Skamokawa Historic District, #76001923.

Lewis and Clark and Chief Skamokawa ...
Lewis and Clark first met Chief Skamokawa at Fort Clatsop on December 29, 1805. They presented the Chief with a "medal of a Small Size" and a "piece of red ribin to tie around the top of his Hat".

"... In the evening a young Chief 4 men and 2 womin of the War-ci-a-cum tribe came in a large canoe with Wapto roots, Dressed Elk Skins &c. to Sell, the Chief made me a present of about a half a bushel of those rootsó    we gave him a medal of a Small Size and a piece of red ribin to tie around the top of his Hat which was made with a double Cone, the diameter of the upper about 3 Inches the lower a about 1 foot ..." [Clark, December 29, 1805]

On January 19, 1806, Captain Clark purchased one of these hats:

"... we were visited to day by two Clatsop men and a woman who brought for Sale ...    we also purchased a Small quantity of train oil for a par of Brass arm bands, and a hat for Som fishinghooks. these hats are of their own manufactory and are Composed of Cedar bark and bear grass interwoven with the fingers and ornimented with various Colours and figures, they are nearly water proof, light, and I am Convinced are much more dureable than either Chip or Straw, ..." [Clark, January 19, 1806]

Image, 2013, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Chief Skamokawa information panel, Skamokawa Vista Park, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken March 4, 2013.


Skamokawa Historic District ...
Skamokawa Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976 (District #76001923).

Skamokawa in 1941 ...
From "The New Washington: A Guide to the Evergreen State, Federal Writers' Project, 1941":

"... Picturesque SKAMOKAWA (Ind. smoke on the water), (10 alt., 750 pop.), once called "Little Venice", is scattered about the mouth of winding, muddy Skamokawa Creek, which threads its way through a rocky gap to empty into the Columbia River. Ghost buildings cling to one bank of the creek, which during early settlement was the only means of transportation. A number of warped structures covered with circus posters, in the older part of town, are built on floats that rise and fall with the tide. The first co-operative creamery in the State is said to have been organized in Skamokawa, in 1898. A shingle mill and rock quarry are active today. A county fair is usually held here in mid-September. ..."


Views ...

Image, 2013, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Skamokawa, Washington. View from bridge across Brooks Slough. Image taken March 8, 2013.
Image, 2005, Skamokawa Creek and Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Skamokawa Creek looking upstream, and Skamokawa, Washington. Looking upstream from Washington State Highway 4 Bridge across Skamokawa Creek. Image taken July 28, 2005.
Image, 2005, Skamokawa Creek and Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Skamokawa Creek looking downstream, and Skamokawa, Washington. Looking downstream from Washington State Highway 4 Bridge across Skamokawa Creek. Image taken July 28, 2005.
Image, 2004, Skamokawa Creek, Washington, at mouth, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Skamokawa Creek, Washington, at junction of Brooks Slough. Looking downstream towards the Columbia River. Image taken April 9, 2004.


Skamokawa, etc.

  • Bayview Cannery ...
  • Brooks Slough ...
  • Columbia River Gillnet Boat ...
  • General Store ...
  • Julia Butler Hansen NWR ...
  • Kayaks ...
  • Lutes Mountain and Moe Hill ...
  • Redmen Hall ...
  • Skamokawa Landing ...
  • Skamokawa Vista Park ...
  • Steamboat Slough ...
  • Wahkiakum County Fair ...

Bayview Cannery ...
In 1873 Robert Hume built a cannery at Bayview (often seen spelled "Bay View"), one mile downriver from Skamokawa. The cannery provided a market for commercially caught salmon from the Columbia River.
[More]

Image, 2013, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
View downstream towards location of Bayview, as seen from Skamokawa Vista Park, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken March 8, 2013.


Brooks Slough ...
Brooks Slough merges with Skamokawa Creek at the community of Skamokawa, before merging with Steamboat Slough to enter the Columbia River.
[More]

Image, 2007, Brooks Slough, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Brooks Slough, Washington. Image taken October 13, 2007.
Image, 2005, Brooks Slough at Skamokawa, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Brooks Slough at Skamokawa, Washington. From bridge near mouth of Brooks Slough, looking upstream on Brooks Slough. Brooks Slough merges with the Skamokawa Creek before it enters the Columbia River. Image taken July 28, 2005.


"Columbia River Gillnet Boat" ...
In 1978, Altoona, Washington's "Columbia River Gillnet Boat" at the Altoona Cannery was added to the National Register of Historic Places (Structure #78002783) as an important part of the fishing industry along the Columbia River between 1900 and 1924. The 26-foot-long double-ended boat was built between 1913 and 1916 and was one of the first of the gillnet boats built for a gasoline engine. Currently (2013), the Gillnet Boat resides at the Wahkiakum County Fairgrounds, Skamokawa, Washington.
[More]

Image, 2013, Columbia River Gillnet Boat, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia River Gillnet Boat, Wahkiakum County Fairgrounds, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken August 15, 2013.
Image, 2013, Columbia River Gillnet Boat, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Columbia River Gillnet Boat, Wahkiakum County Fairgrounds, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken August 15, 2013.


General Store ...
Skamokawa's old General Store is now part of the Skamokawa Resort, which includes not only the old General Store, but also a Post Office, bed-and-breakfast, and meeting room, with the docks behind the historic buildings being the Skamokawa Paddle Center. This area was once the home to the Skamokawa Farmers Creamery, organized in 1898 as the first cooperative creamery on the West Coast. The General Store was built in 1908.

From the National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form for #76001923, Skamokawa Historic District:

"Store:   1908, two stories, rectangular plan with simple gable roof and cornice returns, shiplap sideing, double hung windows. Store fron unaltered except for possible addition of a canopy. One and one-half story extension at the rear on piling.

Originally a bowling alley with apartments above! Later a restaurant and confectionary. Bult by John Lamont."


Image, 2013, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
General Store, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken March 8, 2013.
Image, 2011, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken January 26, 2011.
Image, 2011, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Kayaks and Reflections, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken January 26, 2011.


Julia Butler Hansen NWR ...
[More]

Image, 2011, Julia Butler Hansen NWR, Washington, at mouth, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Julia Butler Hansen NWR, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken January 26, 2011.


Kayaks ...

Image, 2011, Skamokawa, Washington, at mouth, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Kayaks, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken July 6, 2011.
Image, 2011, Skamokawa, Washington, at mouth, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Kayaks, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken July 6, 2011.


Lutes Mountain and Moe Hill ...
Downstream of the community of Skamokawa rises Lutes Mountain. The U.S. Board of Geographic Names (USBGN) made "Lutes Mountain" official in 1959. Previous names of the 1,089-foot-high mountain were "Lukes Mountain" and "Moe Hill". Today "Moe Hill" is the name of the 869-foot hill to the southeast of Lukes Mountain, also made official by the USBGN in 1959.

According to Irene Martin in "Skamokawa: Sad Years, Glad Years" (1985), Joseph Lute, a Civil War veteran, arrived in Skamokawa in 1868 and homesteaded land just west of Skamokawa. He built two homes on the nearby mountain, one on the flank and the other on the top. Rumor has it Lute buried his gold at the home on top of the peak.

Moes Hill was named after Albert Moe, an early settler and in 1873, the first Postmaster.


Image, 2011, Lutes Mountain, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Lutes Mountain rising over Skamokawa. Image taken July 6, 2011.


Redmen Hall ...
Redmen Hall is a restored 1894 schoolhouse which now is the River Life Interpretive Center, a non-profit regional museum. The original Queen Ann style school was designed by Portlander Allen Riley, and was dedicated on July 4, 1894 with a community picnic, patriotic speeches and singing by the children. The schoolhouse held four grades on the first floor and four grades on the second story. The school served the community for 32 years before being sold to the Order of Redmen, a nationwide frateral organization for use as their lodge and community center. In 1992 the River Life Interpretive Center opened, featuring panel displays to depict the story of Skamokawa and its surrounding area. The Center features a permanent exhibit of the Lewis and Clark stay in this region.

From the National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form for #76001923, Skamokawa Historic District:

"Redmen Hall - Central School:   1894, two stories, rectangular plan with gable roof cornice returns, engaged "tower" entrance with louvered bellfry, pyramidal roof and flagpole, and pedimented portico. Unusual bands of short vertical boards with mouldings along the top and bottom edges like exterior wainscoting at the level of the first floor and the level of the second floor. Moved to one side to make way for the highway constructed in the 1930s

Designed by Allen Riley, Portland Architect, for School District #22 in a vague rendition of the Queen Anne style, the contractor was Masten, Lowell, Madden & Sweet. Dedicated July 4, 1894 with a community picnic and a program of speakers. Children who lived across the slough rowed to school. Later used by the Redmen, a fraternal organization active in Skamokawa since 1902."


Image, 2011, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Redmen Hall, Skamokawa, Washington. Redmen Hall is a restored 1894 Queen Anne style schoolhouse. Image taken January 26, 2011.
Image, 2005, Redmen Hall, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Redmen Hall, Skamokawa, Washington. Redmen Hall is a restored 1894 Queen Anne style schoolhouse. Image taken July 28, 2005.
Image, 2013, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Skamokawa Creek and the Columbia River, as seen from Redmen Hall, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken March 8, 2013.
Image, 2005, Redmen Hall, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Redmen Hall, Skamokawa, Washington. View from near Skamokawa Vista Park. Image taken November 9, 2005.


Skamokawa Landing ...
Skamokawa Landing is the site of a former steamboat landing located at the junction of Steamboat Slough with Skamokawa Creek and the Columbia River, at Skamokawa, Washington. The competion of Washington Highway 4 in the 1930s made the steamboat landing obsolete.

The historic building at the Skamokawa Landing site dates from 1911 and is now "The Inn at Skamokawa Landing". In its heyday as a steamboat landing, the building housed a general store, theater and dance hall, and warehouse areas. Good views of Price Island and Steamboat Slough can be had upstream, and the Columbia River, Jim Crow Point, and Three Tree Point can be had looking downstream.

From the National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form for #76001923, Skamokawa Historic District:

"Silverman's Emporium:   1904, two stories, flat roof, shiplap siding, built on piling over the slough. Cornice brackets and a wide frieze of variegated shingle work (six different patterns) on the storefront elevation. Formerly included an expansive wharf, now missing its deck and all structure other than piling. The building itself is little altered.

Once the center of town, Silverman's Emporium was a general store, post office and steamboat dock. All goods and passengers using the wharf paid a fee to the owner."


[More]


Image, 2013, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
"The Inn at Skamokawa Landing", Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken March 8, 2013.
Image, 2013, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Kayaks, "The Inn at Skamokawa Landing", Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken March 8, 2013.


Skamokawa Vista Park ...
Skamokawa Vista Park is located one block south of the town of Skamokawa. The area was once an Indian village known as "Wahkiakum". This village had been occupied as early as 2,300 years ago. Lewis and Clark visited the village on November 7, 1805, on their journey to the Pacific.
[More]

Image, 2013, Skamokawa Vista Park, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Skamokawa Vista Park, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken March 4, 2013.
Image, 2013, Skamokawa Vista Park, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
View from Skamokawa Vista Park towards town, with Redmen Hall visible. Image taken March 4, 2013.
Image, 2013, Skamokawa Vista Park, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Information kiosk, Skamokawa Vista Park, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken March 4, 2013.


Steamboat Slough ...
The one-and-onehalf-mile Steamboat Slough separates Price Island from the Washington State mainland. Steamboat Slough Road follows the length of Steamboat Slough. Skamokawa Landing, once a popular river stop, lies at the mouth of Steamboat Slough with the Skamokawa Creek.

Image, 2011, Price Island, upstream tip, with Steamboat Slough, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Price Island, Washington, with Steamboat Slough on the right. Image taken January 26, 2011.


Wahkiakum County Fair ...
The Wahkiakum County Fair is held each August in Skamokawa.

Image, 2013, Wahkiakum County Fair, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Wahkiakum County Fair, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken August 15, 2013.
Image, 2013, Wahkiakum County Fair, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Elephant Ears, Wahkiakum County Fair, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken August 15, 2013.
Image, 2013, Wahkiakum County Fair, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Quilt, Wahkiakum County Fair, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken August 15, 2013.
Image, 2013, Wahkiakum County Fair, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Quilt, Wahkiakum County Fair, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken August 15, 2013.
Image, 2013, Wahkiakum County Fair, Skamokawa, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Diamond Dove, Wahkiakum County Fair, Skamokawa, Washington. Image taken August 15, 2013.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 7, 1805 ...
A cloudy foggey morning Some rain. we Set out [from their camp at Cape Horn, Wahkiakum County, Washington] early proceeded under the Stard Shore under a high rugid hills with Steep assent the Shore boalt and rockey, the fog So thick we could not See across the river [typical for this area in the winter], two Canos of Indians met and returned with us to their village which is Situated on the Stard Side behind a cluster of Marshey Islands [Puget Island and the Hunting Islands] , on a narrow chanl. of the river [Cathlamet Channel] through which we passed to the Village of 4 Houses, [Cathlamet, Washington area] ....

Those people call themselves War-ci-‚-cum ...

after delaying at this village one hour [Cathlamet, Washington area] and a half we Set out piloted by an Indian dressed in a Salors dress, to the main Chanel of the river, the tide being in we Should have found much dificuelty in passing into the main Chanel from behind those islands [Puget Island and the Hunting Islands],     without a pilot, a large marshey Island [Tenasillahe Island] near the middle of the river near which Several Canoes Came allong Side with Skins, roots fish &c. to Sell, and had a temporey residence on this Island, here we See great numbers of water fowls about those marshey Islands; here the high mountanious Countrey approaches the river on the Lard Side [near Clifton, Oregon], a high mountn. to the S W. about 20 miles [Saddle Mountain], the high mountans. Countrey Continue on the Stard Side, about 14 miles below the last village and 18 miles of this day we landed at a village of the Same nation [Skamokawa, Washington]. This village is at the foot of the high hills on the Stard Side back of 2 Small Islands [today, Price Island lies between Skamokawa and the Columbia River] it contains 7 indifferent houses built in the Same form of those above, ... opposit to this Village the high mountaneous Countrey leave the river on the Lard Side [downstream of Aldrich Point] below which the river widens into a kind of Bay [Cathlamet Bay] & is Crouded with low Islands Subject to be Covered by the tides [today this is the Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, part of the Lower Columbia River Estuary] - we proceeded on about 12 miles below the Village [Skamokawa] under a high mountaneous Countrey on the Stard. Side. Shore boald and rockey and Encamped under a high hill [ridge of Jim Crow Point] on the Stard. Side opposit to a rock [Pillar Rock] Situated half a mile from the Shore, about 50 feet high and 20 feet Diamieter,     we with dificuelty found a place Clear of the tide and Sufficiently large to lie on and the only place we could get was on round Stones on which we lay our mats rain Continud. moderately all day & Two Indians accompanied us from the last village, they we detected in Stealing a knife and returned, our Small Canoe which got Seperated in the fog this morning joined us this evening from a large Island Situated nearest the Lard Side below the high hills on that Side, the river being too wide to See either the form Shape or Size of the Islands on the Lard Side [part of the Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge].

Great joy in camp we are in View of the Ocian [Clark's famous "Ocian in view! O! the Joy"], this great Pacific Octean [Pacific Ocean] which we been So long anxious to See. and the roreing or noise made by the waves brakeing on the rockey Shores (as I Suppose) may be heard distictly

we made 34 miles to day as Computed





Journey to the PacificReturn to
Menu
 



SNAKE RIVER CONFLUENCE | COLUMBIA PLATEAU
COLUMBIA RIVER GORGE | VANCOUVER PLAINS | JOURNEY TO THE PACIFIC
CAMPSITES


HOME | REGIONS | PENNY POSTCARDS | MY CORPS OF DISCOVERY
IMAGE INDEX | LINKS | ABOUT THIS SITE


COLUMBIA RIVER IMAGES - HOME
NORTHWEST JOURNEY - HOME
NORTHWEST BIRDING
RIDGEFIELD NWR - BIRDS
COMPLETE BIRD LIST - PHOTOS
THE BARLOW ROAD
THE COLUMBIA RIVER HIGHWAY
WILDFLOWERS and WEED BLOSSOMS



*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority website, 2004;    Federal Writers' Project, 1941, "The New Washington: A Guild to the Evergreen State";    Hay, K.G., 2004, The Lewis and Clark Columbia River Water Trail, Timber Press, Portland;    Kirk, R., and Alexander, C., 1990, "Exploring Washington's Past", University of Washington Press;    Martin, I., 1985, "Skamokawa: Sad Years, Glad Years";    National Register of Historic Places website, 2004;    River Life Interpretive Center website, 2005;    Skamokawa Historic District National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, #76001923;    Skamokawa Landing website, 2004;    The Inn at Skamokawa Landing website, 2011;    U.S. Bureau of Land Management website, 2007;    U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) website, 2007;    "welcometowahkiakum.com" website, 2005;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
/Regions/Places/skamokawa.html
© 2017, Lyn Topinka, "ColumbiaRiverImages.com", All rights reserved.
Images are NOT to be downloaded from this website.
August 2013