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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Seaman"
Includes ... Seaman ... "Scannon" ... Seamans' Creek ...
Image, 2005, Destination: The Pacific, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
"Seaman", "Welcome to Winter 1805", Fort Clatsop, Oregon. Bicentennial re-enactors. A buffalo hide tepee is in the background. Image taken November 15, 2005.


"Seaman" ...
History shows that Captain Merriwether Lewis purchased "Seaman" for $20.00 before he left on the long journey to the Pacific and back. First mention of the dog, a Newfoundland, is made on September 11, 1803, while Captain Lewis was on the Ohio River near Grandview, Ohio.

"... I made my dog take as many each day as I had occation for, they wer fat and I thought them when fryed a pleasent food— many of these squirrils wer black, they swim very light on the water and make pretty good speed— my dog was of the newfoundland breed very active strong and docile, he would take the squirel in the water kill them and swiming bring them in his mouth to the boat. ..." [Lewis, September 11, 1803, near Grandview, Ohio]

"... Passed the Missippi this day and went down on the other side after landing at the upper habitation on the oposite side. we found here som Shawnees and Delewars incamped; one of the Shawnees a respectable looking Indian offered me three beverskins for my dog with which he appeared much pleased, the dog was of the newfoundland breed one that I prised much for his docility and qualifications generally for my journey and of course there was no bargan, I had given 20$ for this dogg myself ..." [Lewis, November 16, 1803, Mississippi County, Missouri]

"Seaman", "Seamon", or "Scannon" ...
For many years historians used the name "Scannon" for the dog, most likely a result of trying to read the Captains' penmanship. Later historians discovered the correct name was "Seaman" or as often seen in the journals, "Seamon".

"... we came to for Dinner at a Beever house, Cap Lewis's Dog Seamon went in & drove them out. ..." [Clark, July 5, 1804, first draft]

"... passed a handsome Sand beach on the South Side, where we Saw three large Elk the first wild ones I ever Saw. Capt. Clark & drewyer Shot at them, but the distance was too long, they Ran or trotted in to the River and Seamon <cross> Swam across after them, we proceeded on ..." [Ordway, July 14, 1804, Atchison County, Missouri]

"... Saw a flock of Goats Swimming the river this morning near to our Camp. Capt. Lewises dog Seamon took after them caught one in the River. Drowned & killed it and Swam to Shore with it. ..." [Ordway, April 26, 1805]

"Seamans Creek" ...
Lewis and Clark named today's Monture Creek in Montana "Seamans' Creek". The men camped there the night of July 5, 1806.

"... East 3 m. to the entrance of a large creek 20 yds. wide Called Seamans' Creek passing ... we encamped on the lower side of the last creek just above it's entrance. here a war party had encamped about 2 months since and conceald their fires. ..." [Lewis, July 5, 1806]

While Seamans Creek was published in the 1814 Biddle version of the Lewis and Clark journals, the name never took. Seaman's Creek acquired the name "Monture Creek" in the late 1800s after George Monture who was killed there by Indians.

From the 1814 Biddle/Allan version of the Lewis and Clark journals:

" ... Saturday, July 5. ... encamped near the entrance of a large creek, twenty yards wide, to which we gave the name of Seaman's creek. We had seen no Indians, although near the camp were the concealed fires of a war party, who had passed about two months ago. ..." [Biddle/Allan, 1814]

In July 2000 a proposal to change the name of Monture Creek to "Seamans Creek" was submitted to the U.S. Board of Geographic Names. In April 2001 the proposed change was rejected, and Monture Creek remained "Monture Creek". Monture Creek is 27.5 miles long and merges into the Blackfoot River.


What color was Seaman ??? ...
There is no mention in the journals as to what color Seaman was. While most folks today associate black being the color of the Newfoundland breed, back in the early 1800s dogs called the "Newfoundland" were basically white with dark markings.

The PBS website "Inside the Corps" states:

"... The dog is mentioned frequently in the journals, including Lewis’s praise of the “sagacity” of Seaman, but nowhere in any of the explorers’ original manuscript journals is the color of Lewis’s dog given. Nevertheless, scholarly and fictional post-expedition literature alike mention the dog unequivocally as “black.” It is uncertain when today’s preferred solid colors of Newfoundlands were developed. ..."

A Newfoundland Club of America article by Historian Emma H. Mellencamp, PhD., (reprinted in 1976, found online, 2014), describes early paintings of Newfoundland dogs or Newfoundland-type dogs as being basically white.

"... C. Bede Maxwell reproduced in color (1972) a pair of Newfoundlands in a painting dated 1800: the male was black and white and the bitch yellow and white. Reinagle's much published "The Newfoundland Dog" was first published in a magnificent edition of 1803 (Wm Taplin) in which it is clear that those dark areas on the dog which seem to be black were tawny yellow, his muzzle a steel-blue. In fact, all the early 19th century illustrations which I have found, and whose color I could authenticate were white with black or dark areas and frecklings. Not a single all-black was called a Newfoundland. ..."

Image, 2014, Stevenson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Seaman, "Four-Legged Friend", detail on display sign, Waterfront Trail, Stevenson, Washington. Image taken July 31, 2014.


Engraving of a Newfoundland done in 1803 by John Scott, and appearing in "The Sportsman's Cabinet".


Seaman

  • Cascade Locks, Oregon ...
  • Hood River, Oregon ...
  • Portland, Oregon ...
  • Ridgefield, Washington ...
  • St. Helens, Oregon ...
  • Stevenson, Washington ...
  • Vancouver Tapestry ...
  • Washougal, Washington ...


Cascade Locks, Oregon ... Marine Park
In September 2006, two wooden life-size cutouts of Seaman were found at Cascade Locks Marine Park, Cascade Locks, Oregon. In April 2011, a bronze statue of Seaman, and another of Sacagawea and Pomp, were dedicated at the same park.
[More]

Image, 2006, Seaman cutout, click to enlarge
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Cutout of Captain Lewis's dog, "Seaman", at Cascade Locks Marine Park, Oregon. Image taken September 16, 2006.
Image, 2011, Two bronzes, Cascade Locks Marine Park, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Seaman bronze, Cascade Locks Marine Park. Image taken May 4, 2011.
Image, 2011, Two bronzes, Cascade Locks Marine Park, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Seaman bronze, Cascade Locks Marine Park. Image taken May 4, 2011.


Hood River, Oregon ... Marine Park
[More]

Image, 2017, Seaman cutout, click to enlarge
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Cutout of Captain Lewis's dog, "Seaman", at Hood River Marine Park, Oregon. Image taken September 25, 2017.


Portland, Oregon ... Lewis and Clark College, Pio Bronze ("Seaman")
Captain Lewis had a Newfoundland dog named "Seaman" and the Lewis & Clark College "Pioneers" have a Newfoundland dog mascot named "Pio". On September 30, 2010, the college unveiled a Georgia Gerber life-size bronze sculpture of Pio. It is located at the Pamplin Sports Center.

Image, 2015, Lewis and Clark College, Portland, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Pio ("Seaman") Bronze, Lewis & Clark College, Portland, Oregon. Image taken May 3, 2015.
Image, 2015, Lewis and Clark College, Portland, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Pio ("Seaman") Bronze, Lewis & Clark College, Portland, Oregon. Image taken May 3, 2015.


Ridgefield, Washington ... City Center 2007
Lewis and Clark spent two nights in the area of Ridgefield, Washington. An information kiosk with cutouts of Lewis and Clark, Sacajawea and her baby, and the dog Seaman, stands on the corner of Pioneer and Main Streets, overlooking Lake River and the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge.

Image, 2007, Ridgefield, Washington, click to enlarge
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Lewis and Clark information kiosk, Ridgefield, Washington. Image taken, March 25, 2007.
Image, 2007, Ridgefield, Washington, click to enlarge
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Sacajawea and Seaman, Lewis and Clark information kiosk, Ridgefield, Washington. Image taken, March 25, 2007.
Image, 2007, Ridgefield, Washington, click to enlarge
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Seaman, Lewis and Clark information kiosk, Ridgefield, Washington. Image taken, March 25, 2007.


St. Helens, Oregon ... Columbia View Park
At the northeast corner of Columbia View Park in St. Helens, Oregon, stands a life-size statue of "Seaman", Captain Lewis's Newfoundland dog. Robert Tidwell of St. Helens, Oregon, used a chainsaw to carve the dog. The display also includes information panels (courtesy of the Historical Society of Columbia County with a grant from the National Park Service) which show a map of the Lewis and Clark journey and plots the journal entries which mention the dog. The dedication took place on November 5, 2005, and included members of the Grande Ronde tribe, Lewis and Clark re-enactors from the Discovery Expedition, and Newfoundlands and their owners from the local Columbia River Newfoundland Club.

Image, 2006, Columbia View Park, St. Helens, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Columbia View Park, St. Helens, Oregon. On the left is a replica of the original lighthouse at Warrior Rock on Sauvie Island. On the right is a statue of "Seaman", Captain Lewis's dog who made the Lewis and Clark journey. Image taken October 31, 2006.
Image, 2006, St. Helens, Oregon, click to enlarge
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"Seaman", Columbia View Park, St. Helens, Oregon. "Seaman", Captain Lewis's dog who made the Lewis and Clark journey. Image taken October 31, 2006.
Image, 2007, Seaman sculpture, St. Helens, Oregon, click to enlarge
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"Seaman", Columbia View Park, St. Helens, Oregon. "Seaman", Captain Lewis's dog who made the Lewis and Clark journey. Image taken February 17, 2007.
Image, 2006, St. Helens, Oregon, click to enlarge
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"Seaman", Columbia View Park, St. Helens, Oregon. "Seaman", Captain Lewis's dog who made the Lewis and Clark journey. The panels show a map of the Lewis and Clark journey and plots journal entries which mention the dog. Panels courtesy of the Historical Society of Columbia County with a grant from the National Park Service. Image taken October 31, 2006.
Image, 2006, St. Helens, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
"Seaman", Columbia View Park, St. Helens, Oregon. "Seaman", Captain Lewis's dog who made the Lewis and Clark journey. Image taken October 31, 2006.


Stevenson, Washington ... Waterfront Trail
Captain Lewis's Newfoundland dog, "Seaman", went along on the expedition, covering thousands of miles, and returning safely back home. A display sign along Stevenson, Washington's Waterfront Trail mentions Seaman, and uses a correct Newfoundland image to show the dog. The sign also has a life-size (by today's standard) paw print for rubbings.

"Four-Legged Friend"

"Many men on the Lewis and Clark Expedition were poor swimmers but not Captain Lewis's dog, Seaman! The Newfoundland was adept on land and in the water. His broad feet helped him swim, even in turbulent waters. Take a rubbing of this actual-size Newfoundland paw print for your journal."

Source:    Information display sign, Waterfront Trail, Steavenson, Washington, 2014.


Image, 2014, Stevenson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Seaman, "Four-Legged Friend", detail on display sign, Waterfront Trail, Stevenson, Washington. Image taken July 31, 2014.
Image, 2014, Stevenson, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Seaman, "Four-Legged Friend", detail on display sign, Waterfront Trail, Stevenson, Washington. Image taken July 31, 2014.


Engraving of a Newfoundland done in 1803 by John Scott, and appearing in "The Sportsman's Cabinet".


Vancouver Tapestry ...
During the last week in August 2017, a 108-foot-long, 28-inch high tapestry was on display at the Vancouver Barracks. This 70-panel tapestry, finished in 2005, depicts the history of Vancouver, Washington. Along the upper border of Panel 7 is an embroidered Seaman.
[More]

Image, 2017, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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"Seaman", Vancouver Tapestry, Vancouver Barracks, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken August 24, 2017.


Washougal, Washington ...
In 2015 Heather Soderberg-Greene's bronze of Seaman, Captain Meriwether Lewis's Newfoundland dog, was unveiled at Washougal's Reflection Plaza.
[More]

Image, 2016, Washougal, Washington, click to enlarge
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Seaman, Reflection Plaza, Washougal, Washington. Image taken November 6, 2016.
Image, 2016, Washougal, Washington, click to enlarge
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Seaman, Reflection Plaza, Washougal, Washington. Image taken November 6, 2016.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Lewis, September 11, 1803, near Grandview, Ohio ... "... I made my dog take as many each day as I had occation for, they wer fat and I thought them when fryed a pleasent food— many of these squirrils wer black, they swim very light on the water and make pretty good speed— my dog was of the newfoundland breed very active strong and docile, he would take the squirel in the water kill them and swiming bring them in his mouth to the boat. ..."


November 16, 1803, Lewis, Mississippi County, Missouri ... "... Passed the Missippi this day and went down on the other side after landing at the upper habitation on the oposite side. we found here som Shawnees and Delewars incamped; one of the Shawnees a respectable looking Indian offered me three beverskins for my dog with which he appeared much pleased, the dog was of the newfoundland breed one that I prised much for his docility and qualifications generally for my journey and of course there was no bargan, I had given 20$ for this dogg myself ..."






July 5, 1804, Clark, first draft "... we came to for Dinner at a Beever house, Cap Lewis's Dog Seamon went in & drove them out. ..."


July 14, 1804, Ordway, Atchison County, Missouri ... "... passed a handsome Sand beach on the South Side, where we Saw three large Elk the first wild ones I ever Saw. Capt. Clark & drewyer Shot at them, but the distance was too long, they Ran or trotted in to the River and Seamon <cross> Swam across after them, we proceeded on ..."


August 25, 1804, Clark, first draft ... "... This morning Capt Lewis & my Self G D. Sjt. Ouderway Shields J. Fields colter Bratten Cane Labeeche corp Wovington Frasure & York Set out to Visit this mountain of evel Spirits, we Set out from the mouth of the White Stone Creek, at 8 oClock, at 4 miles Cross the Creek in an open plain, at 7 ms. the dog gave out & we Sent him back to the Creek ..."
August 25, 1804, Clark ... "... we Crossed the Creek 23 yards wide in an extensive Valley and continued on at two miles further our Dog was So Heeted & fatigued we was obliged Send him back to the Creek ..." ..."






April 18, 1805, Ordway ... "... The wind rose so high that we could not go with the cannoes without filling them with water.     detained us about 3 hours.     one man killed another goose     Seamon b. out     we then proceeded on. Capt. Clark who walked on Shore killed one Elk and one deer which we halted & took them on board. ..."


April 22, 1805, Lewis ... "... walking on shore this evening I met with a buffaloe calf which attatched itself to me and continued to follow close at my heels untill I embarked and left it. it appeared allarmed at my dog which was probably the cause of it's so readily attatching itself to me. ..."


April 25, 1805, Lewis ... "... The wind was more moderate this morning, tho' still hard; we set out at an early hour. the water friezed on the oars this morning as the men rowed. about 10 oclock A. M. the wind began to blow so violently that we were obliged to lye too.     my dog had been absent during the last night, and I was fearfull we had lost him altogether, however, much to my satisfaction he joined us at 8 Oclock this morning. ..."


April 26, 1805, Ordway ... "... Saw a flock of Goats Swimming the river this morning near to our Camp. Capt. Lewises dog Seamon took after them caught one in the River. Drowned & killed it and Swam to Shore with it. ..."


April 29, 1805, Lewis ... "... the Antelopes are yet meagre and the females are big with young; the wolves take them most generally in attempting to swim the river; in this manner my dog caught one drowned it and brought it on shore; they are but clumsey swimers, tho' on land when in good order, they are extreemly fleet and dureable. ..."


May 5, 1805, Clark ... "... we Camped on the Stard Side, our men killed three Elk and a Buffalow to day, and our Dog Cought an antilope a fair race, this animal appeared verry pore & with young. ..."
May 5, 1805, Lewis ... "... The party killed two Elk and a Buffaloe today, and my dog caught a goat, which he overtook by superior fleetness, the goat it must be understood was with young and extreemly poor. a great number of these goats are devowered by the wolves and bear at this season when they are poor and passing the river from S. W. to N. E. they are very inactive and easily taken in the water, a man can out swim them with great ease; the Indians take them in great numbers in the river at this season and in autumn when they repass to the S. W ..."


May 19, 1805, Clark ... "... Capt Lewis's dog was badly bitten by a wounded beaver and was near bleading to death ..."
May 19, 1805, Lewis ... "... one of the party wounded a beaver, and my dog as usual swam in to catch it; the beaver bit him through the hind leg and cut the artery; it was with great difficulty that I could stop the blood; I fear it will yet prove fatal to him. ..."
May 19, 1805, Ordway ... "... Semon Capt Lewiss dog got bit by a beaver. ..."


May 29, 1805, Clark ... "... In the last night we were alarmed by a Buffalow which Swam from the opposit Shore landed opposit the Perogue in which Capt. Lewis & my Self were in he Crossed the perogue, and went with great force up to the fire where Several men were Sleeping and was 18 inches of their heads, when one man Sitting up allarmed him and he turned his course along the range of men as they lay, passing between 4 fires and within a fiew Inches of Some of the mens heads as they lay imediately in a direction to our lodge about which Several men were lying. our Dog <all> flew out & he changed his course & passed without doeing more damage than bend a rifle & brakeing hir Stock and injureying one of the blunder busts in the perogue as he passed through ..."
May 29, 1805, Lewis ... "... Last night we were all allarmed by a large buffaloe Bull, which swam over from the opposite shore and coming along side of the white perogue, climbed over it to land, he then alarmed ran up the bank in full speed directly towards the fires, and was within 18 inches of the heads of some of the men who lay sleeping before the centinel could allarm him or make him change his course, still more alarmed, he now took his direction immediately towards our lodge, passing between 4 fires and within a few inches of the heads of one range of the men as they yet lay sleeping, when he came near the tent, my dog saved us by causing him to change his course a second time, which he did by turning a little to the right, and was quickly out of sight, leaving us by this time all in an uproar with our guns in or hands, enquiring of each other the case of the alarm, which after a few moments was explained by the centinel; we were happy to find no one hirt. ..."
May 29, 1805, Ordway ... "... in the course of last night we were alarmed by a Buffalow Swimming across from the opposite Shore & landed opposite the white perogue in which our Captains Stay. he crossed the perogue, & went with great forse up the bank to the fire where the men were Sleeping & was within 18 Inches of their heads when one man Setting up alarmed him and he turned his course along the range of men as they lay, passing between 4 fires & within a fiew Inches of Several mens heads, it was Supposed if he had trod on a man it would have killed him dead. the dog flew at him which turned him from running against the lodge, were the officers lay. he passed without doeing more damage than bend a rifle & breaking hir Stalk & injuring one of the blunder busses in the perogue as he passed through. ..."


June 19, 1805, Lewis ... "... After dark my dog barked very much and seemed extreemly uneasy which was unusual with him; I ordered the sergt. of the guard to reconniter with two men, thinking it possible that some Indians might be about to pay us a visit, or perhaps a white bear; he returned soon after & reported that he believed the dog had been baying a buffaloe bull which had attempted to swim the river just above our camp but had been beten down by the stream landed a little below our camp on the same side & run off. ..."


June 27, 1805, Lewis ... "... a bear came within thirty yards of our camp last night and eat up about thirty weight of buffaloe suit which was hanging on a pole.     my dog seems to be in a constant state of alarm with these bear and keeps barking all night. ..."


June 28, 1805, Lewis ... "... The White bear have become so troublesome to us that I do not think it prudent to send one man alone on an errand of any kind, particularly where he has to pass through the brush. we have seen two of them on the large Island opposite to us today but are so much engaged that we could not spare the time to hunt them but will make a frolick of it when the party return and drive them from these islands. they come close arround our camp every night but have never yet ventured to attack us and our dog gives us timely notice of their visits, he keeps constantly padroling all night. I have made the men sleep with their arms by them as usual for fear of accedents. ..."


July 15, 1805, Lewis ... "... here Drewyer wouded a deer which ran into the river    my dog pursued caught it drowned it and brought it to shore at our camp. ..."


July 21, 1805, Lewis ... " ... we daily see great numbers of gees with their young which are perfectly feathered except the wings which are deficient in both young and old.    my dog caught several today, as he frequently dose ..."


July 26, 1805, Lewis ... "... the high lands are thin meagre soil covered with dry low sedge and a species of grass also dry the seeds of which are armed with a long twisted hard beard at the upper extremity while the lower point is a sharp subulate firm point beset at it's base with little stiff bristles standing with their points in a contrary direction to the subulate point to which they answer as a barb and serve also to pres it forward when onece entered a small distance.     these barbed seed penetrate our mockersons and leather legings and give us great pain untill they are removed.     my poor dog suffers with them excessively, he is constantly binting and scratching himself as if in a rack of pain. ..."


August 19, 1805, Lewis ... "... we also distributed a good quantity paint mockerson awls knives beads lookingglasses &c among the other Indians and gave them a plentifull meal of lyed corn which was the first they had ever eaten in their lives. they were much pleased with it.     every article about us appeared to excite astonishment in ther minds; the appearance of the men, their arms, the canoes, our manner of working them, the back man york and the segacity of my dog were equally objects of admiration. ..."






April 11, 1806, Clark, near Bonneville ... "... one other fellow attempted to Steal Capt. Lewis's dog, and had decoyed him nearly half a mile we were informed of it by a man who Spoke the Clatsop language and imediately Sent three men with their guns who over took the Indians, who on their approach ran off and lift the dog ..."
April 11, 1806, Lewis, near Bonneville ... "... three of this same tribe of villains the Wah-clel-lars, stole my dog this evening, and took him towards their village; I was shortly afterwards informed of this transaction by an indian who spoke the Clatsop language, and sent three men in pursuit of the theives with orders if they made the least resistence or difficulty in surrendering the dog to fire on them; they overtook these fellows or reather came within sight of them at the distance of about 2 miles; the indians discovering the party in pursuit of them left the dog and fled. ..."


May 8, 1806, Clark ... "... This morning our hunters was out by the time it was light. about 8 oClock Shields brought in a Small deer, on which we brackfast by 11 A. M. all our hunters returned Drewyer & P. Crusat brought in a Deer each & Collins wounded one which our Dog Caught near our Camp. ..."
May 8, 1806, Lewis ... "... Most of the hunters turned out by light this morning a few others remained without our permission or knoledge untill late in the morning, we chid them severely for their indolence and inattention to the order of last evening. about 8 OCk. Sheilds returned with a small deer on which we breakfasted. by 11 A. M. all our hunters returned, Drewyer and Cruzatte brought each a deer, Collins wounded another which my dogs caught at a little distance from the camp. ..."
May 8, 1806, Ordway ... "... fair morning. we delay a while to hunt. Several of the hunters went out and killed 4 Deer one of the hunters wounded a deer only broke its leg Capt. Lewises dog Seamon chased it caught it killed it. ..."


May 23, 1806, Clark ... "... Sergt. Pryor wounded a Deer at a lick near our Camp and our dog prosued it into the river. ..."
May 23, 1806, Lewis ... "... Segt. Pryor wounded a deer early this morning in a lick near camp; my dog pursud it into the river ..."


July 5, 1806, Lewis, Monture Creek, Montana ... "... East 3 m. to the entrance of a large creek 20 yds. wide Called Seamans' Creek passing ... we encamped on the lower side of the last creek just above it's entrance. here a war party had encamped about 2 months since and conceald their fires. ..."
July 5, 1806, Biddle/Allen version (1814) ... " ... Saturday, July 5. ... encamped near the entrance of a large creek, twenty yards wide, to which we gave the name of Seaman's creek. We had seen no Indians, although near the camp were the concealed fires of a war party, who had passed about two months ago. ..."


July 7, 1806, Lewis ... "... deer are remarkably plenty and in good order. Reubin Fields wounded a moos deer this morning near our camp.     my dog much worried. ..."


July 15, 1806, Lewis, at the Great Falls of the Missouri ... "... the musquetoes continue to infest us in such manner that we can scarcely exist; for my own part I am confined by them to my bier at least ¾ths of my time.     my dog even howls with the torture he experiences from them, they are always most insupportable, they are so numerous that we frequently get them in our thrats as we breath ..."




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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Columbia River Newfoundland Club website, 2006;    "PBS.org" website, 2006;    U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) website, 2006;    U.S. Library of Congress, American Memories website, 2006, Paul Allen editor, 1814, "History of The Expedition Under the Command of Captain's Lewis and Clark ...";   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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October 2017