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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Carty Unit ... Ridgefield NWR, Washington"
Includes ... Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR ... Wapato Portage ... Campsite of March 29, 1806 ... Cathlapotle Village ... Cathlapotle Plankhouse ... Carty Lake ... Duck Lake ... Fowler Lake ... Gee Creek ... Oregon White Oak ... Basalt Cobblestone Quarries District ... National Register of Historic Places ...
Image, 2003, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Cathlapotle area, click to enlarge
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Plankhouse construction sign, Carty Unit, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. Duck Lake is in the background. Image taken September 13, 2003.


Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR ...
The Carty Unit is the northernmost of five units within the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. Located just north of the Washington community of Ridgefield, this unit was acquired by the Refuge in 1966. Previously it had been used primarily for grazing.

The Carty Unit encompasses many entities, including Wapato Portage - the location of Lewis and Clark's campsite of March 29, 1806, and the Cathlapotle Village - a historical Chinook Indian village. The Unit also includes the Carty and Duck Lakes, Gee Creek, the "Oaks to Wetlands Trail", and the Basalt Cobblestone Quarries District which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The Carty Unit is bordered on the north by the Lewis River, on the west by the Columbia River, on the southwest and south by Lake River, and on the east by the outskirts of the city of Ridgefield which lies on the "ridge" above.


Image, 2011, Cathlapotle Plankhouse click to enlarge
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Interior, Cathlapotle Plankhouse, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. Image taken, October 8, 2011


Lewis and Clark and the Carty Unit ...
On March 29, 1806, Lewis and Clark visited the area of what is today the Carty Unit of the Ridgefield Refuge. They stopped at the Cathlapotle Village and then camped nearby at a place today called Wapato Portage.

Image, 2005, Visit Ridgefield sign, click to enlarge
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"Visit Ridgefield, Lewis & Clark Did - TWICE" sign. Image taken July 24, 2005.


Early Carty ...
On March 29, 1806, Lewis and Clark visited the Cathlapotle Village located in the Ridgefield NWR's Carty Unit, and then Wapato Portage nearby where they camped.

The Carty Unit of the Ridgefield NWR (and other features in the Ridgefield area) was named after James Carty, the first settler in the area. James Carty arrived at the banks of Lake River in 1839 where he built a log cabin at or very near the site of the Cathlapotle Village plankhouses. Carty lived by himself with only a handful of Cathlapotle natives for neighbors, plus the three bachelors who lived on nearby Bachelor Island.

The U.S. Bureau of Land Management's General Land Office (GLO) Records database (2011) shows James Carty being granted title to 322.08 acres of T4N R1E Sections 18 and 19, and T4N R1W Sections 12 and 24, on December 22, 1865 (1850 Oregon-Donation Act). James Carty was also granted title to 36.8 acres of T4N R1W Section 13, on July 2, 1866 (1829 Sale-Cash entry).

"The first Euro-American to settle in what would later become the town of Ridgefield was Irish immigrant James Carty, who took up residence on Lake River in 1839. After Congress passed the U.S. Donation Land Claim Act in 1850, more settlers arrived. In 1849, bachelors Stillman Hendrick, B.O. Teal, and George Thing settled on the island across Lake River from Carty's land claim, thereby giving "Bachelor Island" its name. They were followed by Arthur Quigley in 1852 and Frederick Shobert in 1853. Both Quigley and Shobert established mud landings on their properties adjoining Lake River where river steamers could offload their goods and take on loads of farm products. Thus, "Shobert's Landing" became the common name for the area for the next 10 years. Ferry crossings were also established in the 1850s. James Carty began running a ferry service across Lake River in 1851."


Source:    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP), September 2010.

"Irish immigrant James Carty settled on Lake River in 1839. In 1851, he filed a Donation Land Claim on the property south of the refuge (DLC 48), and established a ferry crossing Lake River. He lived on the land until his death in 1873. The DLC 44, on the present-day Carty Unit, was settled by Charles Reed in 1854. Columbia Lancaster and his wife filed a claim on the south bank of the Lewis River in 1854. The Cathlapotle area may still have been occupied by Indians after these claims were filed. The 1853-1854 survey notes of the General Land Office (GLO) refer to an "Indian lodge" on the southeatern bank of Gee Creek, where it enters the Lewis River, approximately 800 meters north of Cathlapotle. An 1853 GLO map shows a trail from Vancouver which passes directly alongside Cathlapotle. However, the Cathlapotle townsite is not marked on the map.

The 1863 Washington Territory cadastral survey of T4N R1W, Willamette Meridian, shows the following claims on the present-day Carty Unit: William Gee (No.44), F.A. Fowler (No.47), and James Carty (No.48). In 1873, James Carty's nephew (also named James) acquired the DLC 48 land claim from his uncle, as well as DLC 44 and portions of DLC 57, including the site of the Cathlapotle village. At least two structures were built on DLC 44 by the Carty family. ...   The primary land use during this time appears to have been as pasture for livestock, although gardens and orchards were also cultivated. Upon Carty's death, the land was left to his widow and his only son William."


Source:    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP), September 2010.



Carty Unit, etc.

  • Basalt Cobblestones Quarry District ...
  • Boot Lake ...
  • Bridge, new ...
  • Bridge, old ...
  • Carty Lake ...
  • Cathlapotle Village ...
  • Duck Lake ...
  • Fowler Lake ...
  • Gee Creek ...
  • Long Meadow ...
  • Oaks to Wetland Trail ...
  • Oregon White Oak ("Garry Oak") ...
  • Plankhouse Replica ...
  • U-Haul ...
  • Wapato Portage ...

Basalt Cobblestone Quarries District ...
The Basalt Cobblestone Quarries District (also known as 45-CL-113H), is located on the Carty Unit of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, and was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 14, 1981. Between approximately 1880 and 1910 basalt chunks were quarried at seven different locations and then barged up Lake River to Portland, where they were created into paving stones known as "Belgian Blocks".
[More]

Image, 2011, Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
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Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.
Image, 2011, Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
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"Belgian Blocks", Basalt Cobblestone Quarry, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.
Image, 2014, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Basalt Quarries and Portland Streets information sign, Ridgefield NWR, Carty Unit, Washington. Image taken May 30, 2014.
Image, 2014, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Detail, Basalt Quarries and Portland Streets information sign, Ridgefield NWR, Carty Unit, Washington. Image taken May 30, 2014. Historic photo is 1917 photograph showing NW Hoyt Street paved with Belgian block.


Boot Lake ...

Image, 2013, Boot Lake, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Boot Lake, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken August 10, 2013.


Bridge, new ...
(to come)


Bridge, old ...
(to come)

Image, 2008, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
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Carty Unit, with old bridge across railroad tracks, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Washington. Image taken May 9, 2008.
Image, 2007, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
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Amtrak, as seen from the old bridge, Carty Unit, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Washington. Image taken July 1, 2007.


Carty Lake ...
Carty Lake is a small lake on the southern end of the Refuge's Carty Unit. During the winter months it supports a great number of Swans (both Tunda and Trumpeter) and other waterfowl. Lewis and Clark camped near Carty Lake on March 29, 1806, on their return back up the Columbia, a location today knowns as "Wapato Portage". Captain Clark described the Native method of harvesting Wapato.
[More]

Image, 2013, Carty Lake from Ridgefield, click to enlarge
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Carty Lake as seen from Ridgefield, Washington. Image taken October 6, 2013.
Image, 2013, Carty Lake from Ridgefield, click to enlarge
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Carty Lake as seen from Ridgefield, Washington. Image taken October 6, 2013.


Cathlapotle Village ...
Lewis and Clark, on their voyage down the Columbia River in 1805, identified a large Chinook village ("Cathlapotle") located at the confluence of the Columbia River, Lake River and the Lewis River. They estimated that 900 inhabitants lived at the village.

The site of this village is located on the Carty Unit of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. It is one of the few archaeological sites on the Columbia River that has not been lost to looting, development, or flooding. During the late 1990s a partnership with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland State University, and the Chinook Nation resulted in six field seasons which located the remains of six plankhouses and thousands of artifacts were recovered and catalogued.

Today a 37 by 78-foot replica of a Chinook plankhouse has been built near the site of the original townsite. Two hundred and fifty-six logs split into 305 planks went into building the house. The plankhouse foundation was prepared during Summer 2003 and the house was completed with opening ceremony on March 29, 2005, the 199th anniversary of Lewis and Clark's visit.


Image, 2009, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Cathlapotle Village plankhouse location, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Portland State University professor talking about Village history. Flagged tree shows the location of the northeast corner of the early plankhouse. Image taken October 10, 2009.
Image, 2005, Cathlapotle Plankhouse replica, RNWR, click to enlarge
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Front, Cathlapotle Plankhouse replica, Carty Unit, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Washington. Image taken April 27, 2005


Duck Lake ...
The Cathlapotle Plankhouse replica was built in the shores of Duck Lake.

Image, 2005, Duck Lake and the Cathlapotle Plankhouse, click to enlarge
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Duck Lake and the Cathlapotle Plankhouse, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken April 27, 2005.
Image, 2009, Duck Lake, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Duck Lake, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken October 10, 2009.
Image, 2013, Duck Lake, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Duck Lake, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken August 24, 2013.
Image, 2013, Duck Lake, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Duck Lake, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken August 24, 2013.


Fowler Lake ...
Fowler Lake (often not named on maps) is the southwestern water pool located in the center of the Carty Unit of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. Channels connect it to Lancaster Lake. Four of the seven Ridgefield Basalt Quarries are located around Fowler Lake.
[More]

Image, 2011, Fowler Lake, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
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Fowler Lake, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.
Image, 2011, Fowler Lake, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
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Fowler Lake, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.
Image, 2011, Fowler Lake, Ridgefield NWR, click to enlarge
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Asters, Fowler Lake, Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.


Gee Creek ...
Gee Creek winds its way through the northern part of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. Gee Creek was named after early settler William Gee.
[More]

Image, 2011, Gee Creek, Ridgefield NWR, Cathlapotle area, click to enlarge
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Gee Creek, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Carty Unit, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.


Long Meadow ...
[More]

Oaks to Wetlands Trail ...
The Carty Unit of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge includes a 2-mile-long "Oaks to Wetlands Hiking Trail" which passes many elegant oak trees, the Oregon White Oak (Quercus garryana). Their habitat is found on the basalt bluffs above the Columbia River floodplain where the land is drier. The oak trees grow in closed stands on the basalt ridge, along with open grassland. In the Ridgefield NWR most of the oak stands are mature with many greater than 30 inches in diameter.

Oregon White Oak ("Garry Oak") ...
The Oregon White Oak ("Quercus garryana"), also known as the "Garry Oak", is a member of the beech family which exists along the Pacific Coast from British Columbia, Canada, all the way to Southern California. Lewis and Clark are given credit for "discovering" the Oregon White Oak. They brought a sample back with them in their botanical collection.

"... Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana), a broadleaved deciduous hardwood common inland along the Pacific Coast, has the longest north-south distribution among western oaks-from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to southern California. It is the only native oak in British Columbia and Washington and the principal one in Oregon. Though commonly known as Garry oak in British Columbia, elsewhere it is usually called white oak, post oak, Oregon oak, Brewer oak, or shin oak. Its scientific name was chosen by David Douglas to honor Nicholas Garry, secretary and later deputy governor of the Hudson Bay Company. [U.S. Forest Service website, 2007]

[More]


Image, 2005, Oregon White Oak, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, click to enlarge
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Oregon White Oak, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Washington. This oak is located on the basalt bluff above the Columbia, in the Carty Unit. Image taken April 27, 2005.
Image, 2008, White Oak, Ridgefield NWR, Cathlapotle area, click to enlarge
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Great Horned Owls feldglings sitting in an over 300-year-old Oregon White Oak, Carty Unit, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Washington. Image taken May 9, 2008.


Plankhouse Replica ...
A 37 by 78-foot replica of a Chinook plankhouse has been built near the site of the original townsite. Two hundred and fifty-six logs split into 305 planks went into building the house. The plankhouse foundation was prepared during Summer 2003 and the house was completed with opening ceremony on March 29, 2005, the 199th anniversary of Lewis and Clark's visit.
[More]

Image, 2007, Cathlapotle Plankhouse click to enlarge
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Entrance, Cathlapotle Plankhouse, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. Image taken July 1, 2007.
Image, 2007, Cathlapotle Plankhouse click to enlarge
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Inside, Cathlapotle Plankhouse, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge. Image taken July 1, 2007.


U-Haul ...
The Washington community of Ridgefield is known as the "Birthplace of U-Haul", with the original location being on what is today's Carty Unit of the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge.

In the summer of 1945 Sam and Anna Marie Shoen initiated "U-Haul", renting their trailers for $2.00 per day.

"... With $5,000, L.S. Shoen, his wife Anna Mary Carty Shoen and their young child moved to the Carty ranch in Ridgefield, Washington. There, with the help of the Carty family, the Shoens built the first U-Haul trailers in the fall of 1945, using the ranch's automobile garage (and milk house) as the first manufacturing plant for the budding U-Haul Co. ... By the end of 1945, thirty 4' x 7' open trailers were on service station lots in Portland, Vancouver and Seattle, Wash. ..." ["Uhaul.com" website, 2006]

In 1966, when the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service purchased most of the Carty land for the Ridgefield Refuge, the milk house/garage/U-haul building was still in existence. It was located near where today sits the Cathlapotle Plankhouse replica. The Carty family moved the structure uphill to their property along the road, where it still sits today, overlooking the land of the Refuge.


Image, 2007, Ridgefield, Washington, click to enlarge
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"Birthplace of U-Haul, Welcome to Ridgefield" sign. Image shot from moving car. Image taken July 1, 2007.
Image, 2011, Ridgefield, Washington, click to enlarge
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U-haul house, Ridgefield, Washington. Image taken September 23, 2011.


Wapato Portage ...
Wapato Portage is the location of Lewis and Clark's campsite of March 29, 1806, and is located on Lake River, just upstream of the Cathlapotle Village of 14 houses.
[More]

Image, 2009, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Meadow at Wapato Portage, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken October 10, 2009.
Image, 2009, Ridgefield NWR, Washington, click to enlarge
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Location of Wapato Portage, Ridgefield NWR, Washington. Image taken October 10, 2009.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 5, 1805 ...
Rained all the after part of last night, rain continues this morning, I [s]lept but verry little last night [Post Office Lake, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge] for the noise Kept dureing the whole of the night by the Swans, Geese, white & Grey Brant Ducks &c. on a Small Sand Island [one of the islands of the Ridgefield Refuge] close under the Lard. Side; they were emensely noumerous, and their noise horid- we Set out <at about Sun rise> early here the river is not more than 3/4 of a mile in width, passed a Small Prarie on the Stard. Side [quite possibly the location of today's Campbell Lake] passed 2 houses about 1/2 a mile from each other on the Lard. Side a Canoe came from the upper house, with 3 men in its mearly to view us, passed an Isld. Covered with tall trees & green briers [Bachelor Island] Seperated from the Stard. Shore by a narrow Chanel [Lake River or Bachelor Island Slough] at 9 [8?] miles I observed on the Chanel [Lake River or Bachelor Island Slough] which passes on the Stard Side of this Island [Bachelor Island] a Short distance above its lower point is Situated a large village [Cathlapotle Village, near where Lewis and Clark camped on March 29, 1806, a place now known as Wapato Portage], the front of which occupies nearly 1/4 of a mile fronting the Chanel, and closely Connected, I counted 14 houses in front here the river widens to about 1 1/2 miles. ...    about 1 1/2 miles below this village on the Lard Side behind a rockey Sharp point [Warrior Point, Sauvie Island], we passed a Chanel 1/4 of a mile wide [Multnomah Channel] which I take to be the one the Indian Canoe entered yesterday from the lower point of Immage Canoe Island [Hayden Island, at this point Lewis and Clark had not discovered Hayden Island and Sauvie Island were two separate islands]     a Some low clifts of rocks below this Chanel [St. Helens, Oregon], a large Island Close under the Stard Side opposit [Lewis River floodplain, home of Woodland, Washington, possibly more of an "island" in 1805 ???], and 2 Small Islands, below [today's Burke and Martin Islands], here we met 2 canoes from below,- below those Islands a range of high hills form the Stard. Bank of the river [Martin Bluff], the Shore bold and rockey, Covered with a thick groth of Pine     an extensive low Island [Deer Island], Seperated from the Lard side by a narrow Chanel, on this Island we Stoped to Dine I walked out found it open & covered with <Small> grass interspersed with Small ponds, in which was great numbr. of foul, the remains of an old village on the lower part of this Island, I saw Several deer ...     below the lower point of this Island [Deer Island] a range of high hills which runs S. E. forms the Lard. bank of the river the Shores bold and rockey & hills Covered with pine, [Lewis and Clark are passing Goble, Oregon, and the area around the Trojan Nuclear Power Facility     The high hills leave the river on the Stard. Side a high bottom between the hill & river [Kalama, Washington]. We met 4 Canoes of Indians from below, in which there is 26 Indians, one of those Canoes is large, and ornimented with Images on the bow & Stern. That in the Bow the likeness of a Bear, and in Stern the picture of a man- we landed on the Lard. Side & camped [near Prescott Beach, Oregon] a little below the mouth of a creek [Kalama River] on the Stard. Side a little below the mouth of which is an Old Village which is now abandaned-;     here the river is about one and a half miles wide. and deep, The high Hills which run in a N W. & S E. derection form both banks of the river the Shore boald and rockey, the hills rise gradually & are Covered with a thick groth of pine &c. The valley [Columbian Valley] which is from above the mouth of Quick Sand River [Sandy River] to this place may be computed at 60 miles wide on a Derect line, & extends a great Distanc to the right & left rich thickly Covered with tall timber, with a fiew Small Praries bordering on the river and on the Islands; Some fiew Standing Ponds & Several Small Streams of running water on either Side of the river; This is certainly a fertill and a handsom valley, at this time Crouded with Indians. The day proved Cloudy with rain the greater part of it, we are all wet cold and disagreeable- I saw but little appearance of frost in this valley which we call <Wap-pa-too Columbia> from the root or plants growing Spontaniously in this valley only ...     We made 32 miles to day by estimation-






Clark, March 29, 1806 ...
we Set out very early this morning [from their camp on Deer Island] and proceeded to the head of deer island [Deer Island, Oregon] and took brackfast. the morning was very cold wind Sharp and keen off the rainge of Mountains to the East Covered with snow [Cascade Mountain Range]. the river is now riseing very fast and retards our progress very much as we are compelled to keep out at Some distance in the Curent to clear the bushes, and fallin trees and drift logs makeing out from the Shore. dureing the time we were at Brackfast a Canoe with three Indians of the Clan-nar-min-na-mon Nation came down, ...     they reside on Wappato Inlet [Multnomah Channel] which is on the S W. side about 12 miles above our encampment of the last night [Deer Island] and is about 2 miles from the lower point, four other Tribes also reside on the inlet and Sluce which passes on the South W. Side of the Island [Sauvie Island], ...    we proceeded on to the lower point of the Said island [Sauvie Island] accompanied by the 3 Indians, & were met by 2 canoes of nativs of the quath-lah-pah-tal who informed us that the chanel to the N E of the Island [Sauvie Island, the other channel being today's Multnomah Channel] was the proper one. we prosued their advice and Crossed into the mouth of the Chah-wah-na-hi-ooks River [Lewis River] which is about 200 yards wide and a great portion of water into the columbia at this time it being high. The indians inform us that this river is crouded with rapids after Some distance up it. Several tribes of the Hul-lu-et-tell Nation reside on this river. at 3 oClock P. M. we arived at the Quath lah pah tle Village [Cathlapotle Village, today within the Ridgefield NWR, Carty Unit] of 14 Houses on main Shore to the N E. Side of a large island [Bachelor Island]. ...     we purchased wappatoe and Some pashaquar roots.     gave a Medal of the Small Size [Jefferson Peace Medal] to the principal Chief, and at 5 oClock reembarked and proceeded up [on Lake River] on the N E. of an Island [Bachelor Island] to an inlet [??? perhaps drainage from Carty Lake] about 1 mile [Lewis says 2 miles] above the village and encamped on a butifull grassy plac [Wapato Portage], where the nativs make a portage of their Canoes and Wappato roots to and from a large pond at a Short distance [Carty Lake]. in this pond [Carty Lake] the nativs inform us they Collect great quantities of pappato, which the womin collect by getting into the water, Sometimes to their necks holding by a Small canoe and with their feet loosen the wappato or bulb of the root from the bottom from the Fibers, and it imedeately rises to the top of the water, they Collect & throw them into the Canoe, those deep roots are the largest and best roots. Great numbers of the whistling Swan, Gees and Ducks in the Ponds. ...     we made 15 miles to day only.



Lewis, March 29, 1806 ...
We set out early this morning and proceeded along the side of Deer Island [Deer Island]; halted at 10 A. M. near its upper point and breakfasted. here we were joined by three men of the Clan-nah-min-na-mun nation. the upper point of this Island [Deer Island] may be esteemed the lower side or commencement of the Columbian valley. after breakfast we proceeded on and at the distance of 14 miles from our encampment of the last evening [on Deer Island] we passed a large inlet 300 yds in width [Multnomah Channel] this inlet or arm of the river extends itself to the South 10 or 12 M. to the hills on that side of the river and receives the waters of a small creek [Moulton suggest McCarty Creek] which heads with killamucks river [Tillamook River], and that of a bayau which passes out of the Columbia about 20 miles above, the large Island thus formed we call wappetoe island [Sauvie Island] ...     on the North side of the columbia a little above the entrance of this inlet [Multnomah Channel] a considerable river [Lewis River] discharges itself. this stream the natives call the Cah-wh-na-hi-ooks. it is 150 yards wide and at present discharges a large body of water, tho' from the information of the same people it is not navigable but a short distance in consequence of falls and rappids a tribe called the Hul-lu-et-tell reside on this river above it's entr. at the distance of three miles above the entrance of the inlet [Multnomah Channel] on the N. side behind the lower point of an island [Bachelor Island] we arrived at the village of the Cath-lah-poh-tle wich consists of 14 large wooden houses [Cathlapotle Village, located on the Carty Unit, Ridgefield NWR].   here we arrived at 3 P. M. ...    after remaining at this place 2 hours we set out & continued our rout between this island [Bachelor Island] , which we now call Cath-lah-poh-tle after the nation, and the Lard shore. at the distance of 2 miles we encamped in a small prarie on the main shore [Wapato Portage], having traveled 19 miles by estimate.     the river rising fast ..."




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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Clark County, Washington, website, 2011;    "Historylink.org" website, 2011;    "Plankhouse.org" website, 2005;    U.S. Bureau of Land Management website, 2007;    U.S. Bureau of Land Management website, 2007, 2011, "General Land Office Records (GLO)";    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service website, 2005, "Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge"    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP), September 2010;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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May 2014