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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Dr. John McLoughlin"
Includes ... Dr. John McLoughlin ... Dr. Forbes Barclay ... Fort Vancouver ... Hudsons Bay Company ... Oregon City ... Father of Oregon ...
Image, 2006, Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Dr. John McLoughlin bronze bust, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken February 19, 2006.


Dr. John McLoughlin ...
Canadian-born John McLoughlin was an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company. He became Chief Factor (head trader) at Fort George, Astoria (1821 to 1825) and then at Fort Vancouver (1825 to 1846). After leaving the Hudson's Bay Company in 1846, McLoughlin moved to Oregon City where in 1829 he had taken a land claim and in 1842 surveyed and laid out the town site. In 1851 Dr. John McLoughlin became an American Citizen. He died in 1857. One hundred years later, in 1957, McLoughlin is given the title "Father of Oregon" by the Oregon Legislative Assembly. In 1970 Dr. and Mrs. John McLoughlin's graves are moved to Oregon City where they now remain.

Bronze Bust ...
"The bust of Dr. John McLoughlin was a gift from the Oregon Congress of Parents and Teachers to the State of Oregon commemorating the deeds of its founder, Dr. John McLoughlin. It was dedicated on June 8, 1941 at its location in Oregon City. The bronze bust was mounted on a natural stone block and placed between the (Pacific) highway and Willamette River at the Falls Vista overlook. The bust of Dr. McLoughlin was sculpted by American artist Adrian Alexander Voisin who completed it in 1933 at a cost of $2,000.

For six years the Oregon Congress of Parents and Teachers (PTA) worked through it organizations with parents, teachers and children, using the slogan “Two Copper Pennies for a Big Bronze Bust” to raise the money for the statue. Parochial, public and private schools responded along with children’s organizations and PTA groups to contribute to this noble gift. Original plans called for placing the bust in the garden of the McLoughlin house but following its renovation in the late 1930’s, the McLoughlin Memorial Association suggested it be placed overlooking the Willamette River and Falls, as Dr. McLoughlin cherished it so much that even upon his death bed he asked to be carried to the window to “see the setting sun’s reflection upon the waters of the river.” The State Highway Commission, acting upon the suggestion of chairman, Mr. Henry F. Cabell, purchased the property upon which the statue now stands overlooking the Willamette Falls."


Source:    Portland Public Art, 2008, Historical Preservation, "Two Copper Pennies for a Big Bronze Bust", October 12, 2008, Excerpts obtained "from a 2004 Oregon City Commission report", webpage downloaded 2016.


Image, 2015,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Bronze bust of Dr. John McLoughlin, overlooking the Willamette River and the Blue Heron Paper Company, Oregon City, Oregon. View from moving car while heading east on Highway 99E. Image taken January 8, 2015.
Image, 2006, Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Dr. John McLoughlin bronze bust, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken February 19, 2006.


Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington ...
Fort Vancouver's Chief Factor's House was reconstructed in 1976 and is 6,825 square feet.
[More]

Image, 2004, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
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Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Image taken March 7, 2004.

"... At one end is Dr. M'Laughlin's house, built after the model of the French Canadian, of one story, weather-boarded and painted white. It has a piazza and small flower-beds, with grape and other vines, in front. ..."    [Wilkes, 1841]
Image, 2006, Fort Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Front porch, Chief Factor's House, Fort Vancouver, Washington. Grapes cover the front porch. Image taken August 27, 2006.


McLoughlin House Site, Oregon City, Oregon ...
Dr. John McLOUGHLIN
1784-1857

"Chief Factor, 1821-1845, and Superintendent of the Columbia Department, 1824-1845, of the Hudson's Bay Company, laid claim to and took possession of the site of Oregon City in 1829.

In 1842 he had the site surveyed, and subsequently dedicated this park to the Public.

In 1850 he filed the first plat of the site of Oregon City."

Marker placed August 18, 1959, by Oregon City Territorial Days Association.


Source:    Historical stone marker on corner of 7th St. and Center St., Oregon City, Oregon, visited July 2016.


Image, 2016,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
McLoughlin House Site, Oregon City, Oregon. The McLoughlin House is a part of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. Note the graves of Dr. McLoughlin and his wife on the left and the Barclay House on the right. Image taken July 13, 2016.
Image, 2016,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Dr. John McLoughlin marker, McLoughlin House Site, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken July 13, 2016.
Image, 2016,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Dr. and Mrs. John McLoughlin graves, McLoughlin House Site, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken July 13, 2016.


The McLoughlin House ...

"The historic McLoughlin House is 165 years old [article written in 2010], but lately it looks as if it might have been built yesterday. That's because the National Park Service has painstakingly refurbished the outside of the historic Oregon City home of Dr. John McLoughlin, known as "the Father of Oregon," the original chief factor, or superintendent, of Hudson's Bay Co.'s Fort Vancouver from 1825 to 1845. ...

McLoughlin, known to the natives as "the White-headed Eagle," served for 20 years as chief factor at Fort Vancouver. Then he was forced out of his job. As a result, he made use of property he had purchased earlier across the Columbia River in the fledgling community of Oregon City. He also ran two sawmills, a grist mill, a granary, a general store and a shipping business from Oregon City.

McLoughlin died in 1857. His wife, Marguerite, died at the house in 1860. Their daughter, Eloisa Harvey, lived there until 1867, raising six children from her two marriages.

Afterward, the McLoughlin home rapidly lost its cachet. It was converted into a boardinghouse for mill workers. Then it was expanded and remodeled as the Phoenix Hotel. Finally, it became a brothel and slid into disrepute.

In 1909, a group of women who recognized the house's history formed the McLoughlin Memorial Association and raised the money to have the house moved from its original location at Second and Main streets near Willamette Falls. Much to the chagrin of some of the town's leading citizens, the house was pulled slowly by mule to its present location on a bluff above downtown. ...

The [U.S. National] park service took over management of the house in 2003 and since then has worked to make it look as much as possible as it did in 1846. ...

Starting three years ago, after the park service placed the house under the management of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, workers labored board by board, running infrared paint scourers over every square foot of the exterior of the rectangular, two-story Colonial Revival-style home at 713 Center St. ...

The park service also plans to upgrade the historic house next door -- the former home of Dr. Forbes Barclay,a McLoughlin associate, which the park service also manages. ...

The half-acre park where the two houses stand is near the historic Ermatinger House at 619 Sixth St., where McLoughlin's step-granddaughter lived. The park helps form a historic district that also includes Rose Farm, 36 Holmes Lane, where the first territorial legislature met in 1849. ..."


Source:    Dean Baker, October 29, 2010, "Oregon City's historic McLoughlin House undergoing renovation", Special to "The Oregonian", July 2016.



According to the 1936 Historic American Buildings Survey by Jamieson Parker, the McLoughlin House was built by McLoughlin 1846, on retirement from Hudson's Bay Co. The house was originally located on Main Street between 2nd. and 3rd. It was moved in 1909 to it's present site (Oregon City McLoughlin Park) by the Memorial Ass'n. The large, frame, 2-story, square built house with small front porch was restored in 1932.

In 1941 the McLoughlin House became a National Historic Site.

In 2003 the McLoughlin House was added to the National Park System as a unit of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site.


Image, 2016,  McLoughlin House, Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
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HISTORIC PHOTO, Moving the McLoughlin House up Singer Hill, Oregon City, Oregon, 1909. Image courtesy Fort Vancouver Historical Site's 2003 General Management Plan, published 2008, downloaded 2015, original image courtesy Clackamas County Historical Society.
Image, 2016,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
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Dr. John McLoughlin House, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken July 13, 2016.
Image, 2016,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Dr. John McLoughlin House, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken July 13, 2016.
Image, 2016,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Dr. John McLoughlin House, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken July 13, 2016.
Image, 2016,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Dr. John McLoughlin House, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken July 13, 2016.


McLoughlin House Plaque ...
NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE
McLOUGHLIN HOUSE

"In the City he founded in this house he built, lived Dr. John McLoughlin, 1846-57. He won enduring fame for his generous and humane aid to early American settlers in the Oregon Country, as Chief Factor and Superintendent of the Hudson's Bay Company in this Territory, 1824-45. In 1850 Dr. McLoughlin presented this park to Oreogn City. In 1851 he became a citizen of the United States. His house, which originally stood closer to the River, was removed to this location in 1909."

Erected 1950.
National Park Service.
United States Department of the Interior.


Source:    McLoughlin House Plaque, Oregon City, Oregon, visited 2016.


Image, 2016,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Dr. John McLoughlin House, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken July 13, 2016.


Eva Emery Dye Plaque ...

"In memory of Eva Emery Dye and others who saved the McLoughlin House from demolition in 1909. The house was moved down Main Street and up Singer Hill to open as a museum on this location in 1910. Mrs. Dye was the author of "McLoughlin and Old Oregon", and inspired both the Chautauqua in Gladstone and the Oregon City Woman's Club."

September 10, 1989, McLoughlin Memorial Association.


Source:    Eva Emery Dye Plaque, McLoughlin House, Oregon City, Oregon, visited 2016.


Image, 2016,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Eva Dye Plaque, McLoughlin House, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken July 13, 2016.


Dr. Forbes Barclay and the Barclay House ...
Dr. Forbes Barclay served as a physician at the Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Vancouver from 1840 until he retired in 1850. In 1850 Dr. Barclay moved to Oregon City where he lived until his death in 1873.

According to the U.S. National Park Service Fort Vancouver Site website (2016):

"... on June 4, 1839, Forbes Barclay entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company in the dual capacity of clerk and surgeon and was placed on the list of those awaiting assignment. That fall he sailed in the Columbia for Fort Vancouver, where he arrived in the spring of 1840. Relieving Dr. W.F. Tolmie, Barclay at once went to work in the Indian Trade Shop and in the medical department. He served with distinction both as fur trader and physician until he retired from the Company's employ during 1850. He then moved to Oregon City, became an American citizen, and was prominent in professional and political affairs until his death in 1873."

The "Barclay House" was built in 1849 just prior to Dr. Barclay's retirement and is one of the earliest dated examples in Oregon of the "Classical Cottage" style. The house was moved from its original location in 1907 and again moved to its present location next to the John McLoughlin House in 1936. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 (Structure #74001676).


Image, 2016,  Oregon City, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Barclay House, Oregon City, Oregon. Image taken July 13, 2016.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, ...
 




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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    Fort Vancouver National Historic Site website, 2016;    Historic American Buildings Survey by Jamieson Parker, 1936, Library of Congress website, 2016;    Oregon State Archives 50th Anniversay Exhibit, John McLoughlin, 2016;    "OregonLive.com" website, 2016; "Oregon City's historic McLoughlin House undergoing renovation" by Dean Baker, October 29, 2010;    U.S. National Park Service, 2016, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site;    U.S. National Register of Historic Places, Barclay House Nomination Form; 1974;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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July 2016