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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
Image, Russell, and Russell Landing, Vancouver, Washington"
Includes ... Image ... Image Canoe Island ... Russell ... Russell Landing ... Russell's Landing ...
Image, 2011, SE Image Road, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sign, SE Image Road, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken July 3, 2011.


Image, Washington ...
"Image" was a small Vancouver, Washington, community located on the bank of the Columbia River at River Mile (RM) 111. Upstream is Ellsworth, the Interstate 205 Bridge, and the Vancouver Trout Hatchery. Downstream is Lieser Point, Wintler Park, Tidewater Cove, and Ryan Point. Directly across the Columbia River from Image is the Portland International Airport. Image at one time was known as "Russell Landing".

Image, 2011, Image area, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
End of the road, Image area, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken July 3, 2011.


Hudson's Bay Company's Gristmill ...
A Hudson's Bay Company gristmill was built on Mill Creek near the location of today's Image, Washington. Mill Creek was said to have four falls within a short distance of one another, and each fall could produce between twenty-one and twenty-four horse power. All of the falls were situated within a half mile stretch of the stream and were so placed that a mill could be put along them "every fifty yards," or they could all be employed to operate one mill.
[More]

Early Russell(s) Landing and Image ...
According to Robert Hitchman in Place Names of Washington (1985):

"Image:   Suburb on the north bank of Columbia River, 4 miles east of Vancouver, south central Clark County. The name is a shortened version of Image Canoe Island, which was the name applied to a nearby island in 1905 by Lewis and Clark. An earlier name for the town was Russell Landing."

Note: "Image Canoe Island" is today's Hayden Island, located across the Columbia from Image.

An 1884 and 1888 Plat Maps of Clark County (courtesy "rootsweb.com" website, 2011), the upper right corner of T_N, R_E, Section 3, has the Donation Land Claims of W.F. Crate (and Sohney Schuele) and E.J. Taylor (and Lewis P. Love).

Early maps of Washington show the development of the early Columbia River communities from Vancouver east to Camas, including Image, Ellsworth, and Fisher.

  • Cram's 1883 "Rail road & township map of Washington" shows "Vancouver" and the "Fisher's P.O.".
  • Cram's 1889 "Railroad and county map of Washington" shows "Vancouver", "Vancouver Barracks", "Fisher's", and then "La Camas".
  • The 1897 Post Route Map of the State of Washington, in operation on the 1st of September, 1897" shows "Vancouver" and "Fisher".
  • Cram's 1904 "Map of Washington" shows "Vancouver" and "Vancouver Sta.", "Fisher", and "Camas".
  • The 1905 edition of the 1896 U.S. Geological Survey 1:62500 topographic map for "Portland, Oreg." shows "Vancouver", "Vancouver Barracks", "Russell Landing", "Ellsworth", and "Fishers".
  • The 1908 "Railroad Commission Map of Washington, 1908" shows "Vancouver", "Ellsworth", "Fisher", and "La Camas".
  • The 1910 "Railroad Commission Map of Washington, 1910" shows "Vancouver", "Image", "Ellsworth", "Fisher", "Kiernan", and "Camas".
  • Cram's 1911 map shows "Vancouver" and "V. Sta.", "Image", "Ellsworth", "Fisher", and "Camas".
  • Cram's 1925 map of Washington shows "Vancouver", "Ellseworth", "Fisher", and "Camas".
  • The 1928 "Railroad Map of Washington, 1928" shows "Vancouver", "McLoughlin", "Image", "Ellsworth", "Fisher", "Prune Hill", and then "Camas".

N.H. Darton in 1909 used both "Russell Landing" [in photo caption] and "Russells Landing" [in text, p.18].

Plate VIII of the 1909 publication U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 387, "Structural Materials in Parts of Oregon and Washington" by N.H. Darton, is captioned "Clay Pit at Russell Landing, 4 miles Above Vancouver, Wash.".

The ca.1915-1922 Plat Map for Clarke County (found on "Rootsweb.com") shows both communities "Image", "Ellsworth", and "Fishers".


David L. Russell ...
According to the "columbian.com" website (2011, 2015):

"Russell:   In this community about 5 miles east of Vancouver, there was a Russell School for many years. David Russell came to the West Coast via the Isthmus of Panama. He took up a homestead in Battle Ground and lived there until 1882, when he moved to a dairy farm above Washougal. Mr. Russell was the Clark County Territorial Representative from 1873 to 1875. Russell's Landing was at the end of Image Road."

"... Russell was an organizer and first master of the Washougal Grange, the state's oldest in terms of cintinuous existence, and also was prominent in organizing the first state Grange in LaCamas in 1889, two months before statehood. ...

... He took up a homestead in the Battle Ground area in the spring of 1866, cleared away the forest and farmed the property until March 1882. In that year, Russell settled on [a] dairy farm about one mile from Washougal where he milked 30 cows and manufactured butter.

When the Washougal Grange was organized March 31, 1883, Russell became the first master. ...

The U.S. Bureau of Land Management's General Land Office (GLO) Records database (2015) shows David L. Russell was granted title to 160 acres in T3N R2E, Section 10, on June 20, 1872 (1862 Homestead EntryOriginal). This plots to just south of Battle Ground, west of Washington Highway 503 and north of NE 189th Street.


Image, 2011, SE Image Road, Vancouver, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sign, SE Image Road, Vancouver, Washington. Image taken July 3, 2011.


Information in Print ... (by year)

  • 1909 ... Russell(s) Landing Clay Pit
  • 1915 ... Russell Landing
  • 1917 ... Image, formerly Russell Landing
  • 1923 ... Image, formerly Russell Landing
  • 1963 ... References to Russell Landing Clay Pit


Russell(s) Landing Clay Pit ... 1909 ...
CLAY:
"Portland region. -- Clays of various kinds occur in the Portland region, and they are utilized to a moderate extent. Brick is the principal product, and in fact the clays of the immediate vicinity of Portland appear not to be useful for anything else. Within a radius of 100 miles, however, clays suitable for terra cotta and other building materials are found, but as yet no special attention has been given them. Brick loams occupy the surface at many places in the wide terrace areas about Portland, and they are burned into brick at several localities. The pits and kilns are mostly in East Portland, areas where the land is not too highly valued for building lots. Brick works of moderate size at Sylvan and in Johnson Gulch west of Portland use a sandy clasy from the base of the loess. Many bridcks for use in Portland are made at Russells Landing, on the north bank of the Columbia River, 5 miles above Vancouver, where 20 feet of gray brick loam overlies 6 feet thick of purer blue clay; part of the pit is shown in Plate VIII, A. The blue clay has been mixed with shale brought from coal mines in Washington and used for making terra cotta."


Source:    Darton, N.H., 1909, Structural Materials in Parts of Oregon and Washington, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 387;

Image, 1909, Russell Landing Clay Pit, Washington, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
HISTORICAL PHOTO, Clay Pit at Russell Landing, as seen ca.1909.

"Clay pit at Russell Landing, 4 miles above Vancouver, Wash., P, terra-cotta clay; B, brick loam." Source: N.H. Darton, 1909, Structural Materials in Parts of Oregon and Washington: USGS Bulletin 387.


Russell Landing ... 1915 ...
"From Vancouver the Columbia is crossed by a new bridge more than a mile in length [Railroad Bridge at Vancouver]. The depth of the river here is 29 feet. The character and the natural sorting of the material of the river bed are well illustrated by the deposits of fine-grained sand dredged opposite Vancouver, of coarse sand opposite Russell Landing, and of gravel opposite Fishers, 9 miles above Vancvouer. Halfway across the Columbia River bridge the traveler passes into the State of Oregon."


Source:    Diller, J.S., 1915, Guidebook of the western United States: part D, The Shasta route and coast line.

Image, formerly Russell Landing ... 1917 ...
"Image.   A station on the S.P. & S. Ry., 5 miles east of Vancouver, in south central Clarke County; elevation, 47 feet. (Formerly Russell Landing.)."


Source:    Landes, H., 1917, A Geographic Dictionary of Washington: Washington Geological Survey Bulletin No.17.

Image, formerly Russell Landing ... 1923 ...
"Image, in Clarke County, five miles east of Vancouver. It was formerly known as Russell Landing. The name was given on account of an island in the river having received the name of Image Canoe Island, from Lewis and Clark in 1805. (L.C. Gilman, in Names MSS., Letter 590."


Source:    Meany, E.S., 1923, "Origin of Washington geographic names", Gale Research Co.

Russell Landing Clay Pit ... 1963 ...
p.33   "... The stratified claystone and siltstone formerly exposed in the old clay pit at Russell Landing, in the SW 1/4 SW 1/4 sec. 33, T.2N., R.2.E. (Darton, 1909, p.18), prior to grading operations for the relocation of U.S. Highway 830 in 1953 [note: today's Evergreen Highway] ..."

p.106   "Clay from the Troutdale formation near Russell Landing formerly was used in the manufacture of brick and terra cotta (Darton, 1909, p.18). This pit has long been abandoned and has been filled in for a new highway grade."


Source:    Trimble, D.E., 1963, Geology of Portland, Oregon, and Adjacent Areas: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1119.



From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, November 4, 1805 ...
A cloudy cool morning wind from the West we Set out at 1/2 past 8 oClock [from their camp on the north side of Government Island, approximately across from Fisher's Landing], one man Shannon Set out early to walk on the Island [Government Island] to kill Something, he joined us at the lower point with a Buck. This island is 6 miles long and near 3 miles wide thinly timbered     (Tide rose last night 18 inches perpndicular at Camp) near the lower point of this diamond Island [Government Island] is The head of a large Island Seperated from a Small one by a narrow chanel [Lewis and Clark show two large islands on their maps, both in today's Government Island area], and both Situated nearest the Lard Side, those Islands [even today the Government Island reach is a complex of many islands] as also the bottoms are thickly Covered with Pine &c. river wide, Country low on both Sides; [since 1983 the Interstate 205 bridge crosses Government Island connecting Oregon to Washington]     on the Main Lard Shore a Short distance below the last Island we landed at a village of 25 Houses: [near Portland International Airport]; ...     This village contains about 200 men of the Skil-loot nation ...

at 7 miles below this village passed the upper point of a large Island [Hayden Island] nearest the Lard Side, a Small Prarie [Jolie Prairie, today the location of Fort Vancouver and Pearson Airpark. Lewis and Clark camp on this prairie on their return] in which there is a pond [one of the many ponds which use to dot this area] opposit on the Stard. here I landed and walked on Shore, about 3 miles a fine open Prarie for about 1 mile, back of which the countrey rises gradually and wood land comencies Such as white oake, pine of different kinds, wild crabs with the taste and flavour of the common crab and Several Species of undergroth of which I am not acquainted, a few Cottonwood trees & the Ash of this countrey grow Scattered on the river bank, ...     joined Capt. Lewis at a place he had landed with the party for Diner. ...

dureing the time we were at dinner those fellows Stold my pipe Tomahawk which They were Smoking with [Tomahawk pipe, thus giving rise to the name Tomahawk Island] ...    we proceeded on

[The men have passed through the area which, 20 years later, Dr. John McLoughlin would choose for a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company, later to become Fort Vancouver and eventually the city of Vancouver, Washington.]

met a large & a Small Canoe from below, with 12 men the large Canoe was ornimented with Images carved in wood the figures of <man &> a Bear in front & a man in Stern, Painted & fixed verry netely on the <bow & Stern> of the Canoe, rising to near the hight of a man [Lewis and Clark then named Hayden Island "Image Canoe Island"]     two Indians verry finely Dressed & with hats on was in this canoe passed the lower point of the Island [Hayden Island] which is nine miles in length haveing passed 2 Islands on the Stard Side of this large Island [the location of Vancouver Landing and since 1917 the Interstate 5 Bridge connecting Oregon to Washington State], three Small Islands at its lower point [The downstream end of Hayden Island was at one time composed of small islands. One of these, Pearcy Island, would become today's Kelley Point.]. the Indians make Signs that a village is Situated back of those Islands on the Lard. Side and I believe that a Chanel is Still on the Lrd. Side [it wasn't until Lewis and Clark's return trip they would discover the mouth of the Willamette River] as a Canoe passed in between the Small Islands, and made Signs that way, probably to traffick with Some of the nativs liveing on another Chanel, at 3 miles lower [Sauvie Island is located at this stretch, but it is not until the return that Lewis and Clark recognize it as a separate island], and 12 Leagues below quick Sand river [Sandy River] passed a village of four large houses on The Lard. Side [on Sauvie Island], near which we had a full view of Mt. Helien [Mount St. Helens, Washington] which is perhaps the highest pinical in America from their base it bears N. 25 E about 90 miles- This is the mountain I Saw from the Muscle Shell rapid [Umatilla Rapids, Captain Clark actually saw Mount Adams] on the 19th of October last Covered with Snow, it rises Something in the form of a Sugar lofe- about a mile lower passed a Single house on the Lard. Side, and one on the Stard. Side, passed a village on each Side and Camped near a house on the Stard. Side [Post Office Lake vicinity, today within the Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge] we proceeded on untill one hour after dark with a view to get clear of the nativs who was constantly about us, and troublesom, finding that we could not get Shut of those people for one night, we landed and Encamped on the Stard. Side ...

This evening we Saw vines much resembling the raspberry which is verry thick in the bottoms. A range of high hills at about 5 miles on the Lard Side [Portland's West Hills'] which runs S. E. & N W. Covered with tall timber the bottoms below in this range of hills and the river is rich and leavel, Saw White geese with a part of their wings black. The river here is 1 miles wide, and current jentle. opposite to our camp on a Small Sandy Island [one of the small sandy islands prevelent in this stretch of the Columbia. Today the Willow Bar Islands on the east side of Sauvie Island lie across from Post Office Lake.] the brant & geese make Such a noise that it will be impossible for me to Sleap. we made 29 miles to day





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:    "Columbian.com" website, 2011, "Names in Clark County";    Darton, N.H., 1909, Structural Materials in Parts of Oregon and Washington, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 387;    Diller, J.S., 1915, Guidebook of the western United States: part D, The Shasta route and coast line;    Hitchman, R., 1985, Place Names of Washington, Washington State Historical Society;    Landes, H., 1917, A Geographic Dictionary of Washington: Washington Geological Survey Bulletin No.17;    Meany, E.S., 1923, "Origin of Washington geographic names", Gale Research Co.;    "Rootsweb.com" website, 2011;    Trimble, D.E., 1963, Geology of Portland, Oregon, and Adjacent Areas: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1119;    Washington State University Libraries, Digital Collections, "Early Washington Maps", 2015;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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July 2011