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Lewis & Clark's Columbia River - "200 Years Later"
"Herman Creek, Oregon"
Includes ... Herman Creek ... Herman Lake ... Government Cove ... Herman Creek Trail ... Herman Creek Ranger Station ... Columbia Gorge Ranger Station ... Oxbow Hatchery ...
Image, 2009, Herman Creek, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Herman Creek, Oregon. View looking upstream, from NW Forest Lane. Image taken April 4, 2009.


Herman Creek ...
Herman Creek, Oregon, is located at Columbia River Mile (RM) 150.5, and flows through the east end of the community of Cascade Locks. Herman Creek is just downstream of Government Cove and the now-vanished community of Wyeth. Herman Creek was named after an early settler James H. Herman.

Herman Creek Drainage ...
According to the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program's website (2014), there are nineteen small rivers and creeks entering the Columbia River between the Bonneville Dam and Hood River, with the three largest drainages being Eagle Creek, Phelps Creek, and Herman Creek. The 8.5-mile-long Herman Creek is a perennial stream which heads in Hicks Lake. A seven-foot-high falls at Herman Creek Mile (RM) 2.8 is a barrier to Coho Salmon, and an impassible 33-foot-high falls ("WaterfallsNorthwest.com" website lists height as 26 feet) is located at RM 3.5. Steelhead trout, Chinook salmon, and Coho salmon have been observed in Herman Creek.

Early Herman Creek ...
The 1860 cadastral survey (tax survey) for T2N R8E, shows the home of "J. Herman" located in the upper part of the SW quarter of Section 5. The creek is labeled "Herman's Creek", and in the NE quarter of Section 5 is "Herman's Lake". "Herman's Creek" is shown having two mouths not too far apart(now under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir). A "J.W. Allen" is listed as owning 29.86 acres in the SE quarter of Section 6, where the western mouth of Herman Creek meets the Columbia River. The outlet for "Herman's Lake" is slightly upstream of the eastern-most mouth of "Herman's Creek". "Herman's Lake" has a large island located in the center of it, taking up most of the lake. "Herman's Lake" today is a part of Government Cove.

The Bureau of Land Management's General Land Office (GLO) Records database shows James H. Herrman being granted title to 318.8 acres for parts of T2N R8E, Section 5, on July 21, 1875 (1850 Oregon-Donation Act).

According to McArthur and McArthur in "Oregon Geographic Names" (2003), the U.S. Board of Geographic Names made "Herman Creek" official in 1915, after research by Henry Biddle of Portland discovered "Herman" was the correct spelling rather than "Hermann", as often seen in use. (Note the GLO database spells the name as "Herrman".)


Historic Columbia River Highway ...
[More Historic Columbia River Highway]
[More HCRH Route]


Herman Creek Bridge at Frontage Road ...
(to come)

Image, 2015, Herman Creek, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Herman Creek Bridge, looking west, on Frontage Road, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken April 9, 2015.
Image, 2015, Herman Creek, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Herman Creek as seen from bridge on Frontage Road, looking under the Interstate 84 bridge, Cascade Locks, Oregon. View looking downstream. Image taken April 9, 2015.


Herman Creek, etc.

  • Columbia Gorge Ranger Station ...
  • Herman Creek Campground ...
  • Herman Creek Trail ...
  • Herman Lake ...
  • Oxbow Fish Hatchery ...



Columbia Gorge Ranger Station (Herman Creek Ranger Station ...
Columbia Gorge Ranger Station:

"The Columbia Gorge District Ranger Station, initially called the Herman Creek Ranger Station, was used as a Forest Service administration site much earlier than the CCC period. Additions and improvements were made by the CCC to the Summit Meadows CCC Camp in the 1930's. After these improvements, the ranger station's name was changed.

In 1935, plans were made to add a warehouse, a gas and oil house, and a barn. The barn was to have been located in an orchard beyond the ranger station. Because of the site's proximity to the highway and railroad, problems occurred. In October 1935, F.W. Cleator, a recreation site examiner for Mount Hood National Forest, suggested that the entire ranger station be moved, because of loud noise, lack of light, and unsuitable access. Because funds were not available to purchase land for a new site, the ranger station was not moved, and the new warehouse and gas house were built at the existing site.

The only remaining CCC-built structures at the Columbia Gorge Ranger Station are the warehouse and gas house. A residence building constructed in the 1920's also remains. The site is now used as a work center by the ranger district. ...   An impressive rock wall was constructed along one edge of the site."


Source:    Otis, et.al., 1986, "The Forest Service and The Civilian Conservation Corps: 1933-42, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, FS-395, August 1986, Chapter 14, Mount Hood National Forest;


Image, 2015, Herman Creek Ranger Station, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Quick picture, Herman Creek Ranger Station, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.
Image, 2015, Herman Creek Ranger Station, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Stone wall, Herman Creek Ranger Station, Cascade Locks, Oregon. The old Herman Creek Ranger Station can be seen in the background. Image taken June 24, 2015.
Image, 2015, Herman Creek Ranger Station, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Stone wall along road between Herman Creek Ranger Station and Herman Creek Campground, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.
Image, 2015, Herman Creek Ranger Station, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Stone wall along road between Herman Creek Ranger Station and Herman Creek Campground, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.


Herman Creek Campground ...
(to come)

Image, 2015, Herman Creek Campground, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sign, Herman Creek Campground, Cascade Locks, Oregon. The old Herman Creek Ranger Station can be seen in the background on the left. Image taken June 24, 2015.


Herman Creek Trail ...
The Herman Creek Trail is an 8.4 miles U.S. Forest Service trail which rises to 1,700 feet. Loops connect with the Pacific Crest Trail. According to the U.S. Forest Service, the Herman Creek Trail contains the largest surviving forest of old growth Douglas fir, cedar, and hemlock in the Columbia River Gorge.

Image, 2015, Herman Creek Trail, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sign, Herman Creek Trail #406, Herman Creek Campground, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.


Herman Lake ...
At one time Herman Lake existed just east of Herman Creek. Due to the rising of Bonneville Reservoir, the lake behind Bonneville Dam, Herman Lake is now part of Government Cove.

Oxbow Fish Hatchery ...
"Oxbow Hatchery was originally constructed in 1913 to provide additional rearing facilities for Bonneville Hatchery. It was relocated to its present site in 1937 following the construction of Bonneville Dam. Oxbow operated as a state-funded hatchery until 1952 when it was remodeled and expanded as part of the Columbia River Fisheries Development Program (Mitchell Act)a program to enhance declining fish runs in the Columbia River Basin.

The hatchery is presently used for interim egg incubation and early rearing of Coho, Spring Chinook and Sockeye. No adult fish are collected or spawned at Oxbow and there are no fish released at this facility. Upper and Lower Herman Creek Ponds are used as interim rearing sites for coho transferred in from other facilities."


Source:    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife website, 2015.


[More]

Image, 2015, Oxbow Fish Hatchery, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Sign, Oxbow Fish Hatchery, on Frontage Road, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.
Image, 2015, Oxbow Fish Hatchery, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Oxbow Fish Hatchery, on Frontage Road, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.
Image, 2015, Oxbow Fish Hatchery, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Oxbow Fish Hatchery, on Frontage Road, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.
Image, 2015, Oxbow Fish Hatchery, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Oxbow Fish Hatchery, on Frontage Road, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.
Image, 2015, Oxbow Fish Hatchery, Oregon, click to enlarge
Click image to enlarge
Oxbow Fish Hatchery, on Frontage Road, Cascade Locks, Oregon. Image taken June 24, 2015.


From the Journals of Lewis and Clark ...

Clark, October 30, 1805 ...
A cool morning, a moderate rain all the last night, after eating a partial brackfast of venison we Set out [from their camp near Drano Lake and the Little White Salmon River]     passed Several places where the rocks projected into the river & have the appearance of haveing Seperated from the mountains and fallen promiscuisly into the river, Small nitches are formed in the banks below those projecting rocks which is comon in this part of the river, Saw 4 Cascades caused by Small Streams falling from the mountains on the Lard. Side,

[The possiblities in a two-mile area are - upstream to downstream - Starvation Creek and Falls, the seasonal Cabin Creek and Falls, Warren Creek and Falls, Wonder Creek and Lancaster Falls, Lindsey Creek and Falls, and Summit Creek and Falls.]

a remarkable circumstance in this part of the river is, the Stumps of pine trees [Submerged Forest]

[The Submerged Forest existed along the reach from above Dog Mountain/Viento Creek on the upstream edge and Wind Mountain/Shellrock Mountain on the downstream edge.]

are in maney places are at Some distance in the river, and gives every appearance of the rivers being damed up below from Some cause which I am not at this time acquainted with [Bonneville Landslide],     the Current of the river is also verry jentle not exceeding 1 1/2 mile pr. hour and about 3/4 of a mile in width. Some rain, we landed above the mouth of a Small river on the Stard. Side [Wind River] and Dined ...   :  here the river widens to about one mile large Sand bar in the middle, a Great [rock] both in and out of the water, large <round> Stones, or rocks are also permiscuisly Scattered about in the river, ...     The bottoms above the mouth of this little river [Wind River] <which we Call> is rich covered with grass & firn & is about 3/4 of a mile wide rich and rises gradually, below the river (which is 60 yards wide above its mouth) the Countery rises with Steep assent. we call this little river <fr Ash> New Timbered river from a Speces of Ash <that wood> which grows on its banks of a verry large and different from any we had before Seen, and a timber resembling the beech in bark <& groth> but different in its leaf which is Smaller and the tree smaller. passed maney large rocks in the river and a large creek on the Stard. Side in the mouth of which is an Island [Rock Creek near Stevenson, Washington], passed on the right of 3 Islands <on> near the Stard. Side, and landed on an Island close under the Stard. Side at the head of the great Shute [head of the Cascades Rapids], and a little below a village of 8 large houses on a Deep bend on the Stard. Side, and opposit 2 Small Islands imediately in the head of the Shute, which Islands are covered with Pine, maney large rocks also, in the head of the Shute. Ponds back of the houses, and Countrey low for a Short distance. The day proved Cloudy dark and disagreeable with Some rain all day which kept us wet. The Countary a high mountain on each Side thickly Covered with timber, Such as Spruc, Pine, Cedar, Oake Cotton &c. &c.     I took two men and walked down three miles to examine the Shute and river below proceeded along an old Indian path, passd. an old village at 1 mile [vicinity of Ice House Lake] ...     I found by examonation that we must make a portage of the greater perpotion of our Stores 2 1/2 miles, and the Canoes we Could haul over the rocks, I returned at Dark ...     a wet disagreeable evening, the only wood we could get to burn on this little Island on which we have encamped [near Ashes Lake, the island is now under the waters of the Bonneville Reservoir. Ashes Lake was near the head of the Cascade Rapids. Across from Ashes Lake is Cascade Locks, Oregon.] is the newly discovered Ash, which makes a tolerable fire. we made fifteen miles to daye





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*River Miles [RM] are approximate, in statute miles, and were determined from USGS topo maps, obtained from NOAA nautical charts, or obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers website, 2003

Sources:       Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (2014), "NWCouncil.org" website, 2017, Lower Oregon Columbia Gorge Tributaries Watershed Assessment;    McArthur, L.A., and McArthur, L.L., 2003, Oregon Geographic Names, Oregon Historical Society Press, Portland;    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife website, 2015;    U.S. Bureau of Land Management website, 2009;    U.S. Bureau of Land Management's General Land Office Records website, 2009;    U.S. Forest Service Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area website, 2009;    U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) website, 2009;    "WaterfallsNorthwest.com" website, 2017;   

All Lewis and Clark quotations from Gary Moulton editions of the Lewis and Clark Journals, University of Nebraska Press, all attempts have been made to type the quotations exactly as in the Moulton editions, however typing errors introduced by this web author cannot be ruled out; location interpretation from variety of sources, including this website author.
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September 2017